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Developing and Validating the Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale: A Self-Determination Perspective


Corresponding author: Patti M. Valkenburg; e-mail:


The aim of this study was to develop the Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale (PPMMS). The PPMMS measures adolescents' perceptions about how frequently their parents restrict or actively discuss their media use, and in what style (i.e., autonomy-supportive, controlling, or inconsistent). In a first study among 761 preadolescents and early adolescents (10–14 years), we confirmed that the subscales of the PPMMS could be distinguished. In a second study, in which 499 adolescents were surveyed again, the test–retest reliability and validity of the PPMMS were established. The PPMMS met the standards of reliability, validity, and utility. Subscales correlated in the expected directions with general parenting styles, family conflict, prosocial behavior, and antisocial behavior.