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Children's Verbal and Nonverbal Congruent and Incongruent Communication During Parent–Child Interactions



While the field of verbal and nonverbal congruent and incongruent communication has gained increasing interest in recent years, research in this area regarding children has received considerably less attention. This article presents diverse patterns of children's verbal and nonverbal interrelationships of congruent–incongruent communication. The study used a mixed multivariate design to analyze parent–child interactions (n = 160) in structured joint game sequences, filmed in their homes. The findings explain children's incongruent communication patterns (ICP) and reveal the effects of social and situational factors, including child's and parent's gender, socioeconomic status, and task difficulty. The study expands the theoretical and methodological research regarding ICP. The proposed model provides composite theoretical perspectives regarding children's congruence–incongruence interconnections of verbal and nonverbal communication.