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Keywords:

  • cluster headache;
  • occipital nerve block;
  • neuromodulation;
  • LSD;
  • sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation;
  • vagal nerve stimulation

The most evidence exists for mixed anesthetic/steroid occipital nerve blocks (which are also useful in non-refractory patients), deep brain stimulation, sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) blocks, SPG radiofrequency ablation, and SPG stimulation with the Autonomic Technologies, Inc (ATI) SPG Neurostimulator, the latter approved in the European Union and reimbursed in several countries.