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Keywords:

  • cluster headache;
  • idiopathic intracranial hypertension;
  • Chiari malformation;
  • deep brain stimulation;
  • ventriculoperitoneal shunt;
  • endovascular stenting

Medically refractory headache is an uncommon but difficult-to-treat clinical problem. Patients who fail maximal medical management may be candidates for invasive treatment. In this review, we critically examine the literature on the range of surgical treatments currently available for migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and Chiari malformation type 1, with particular attention to patient selection, treatment efficacy, and complications.