• depression;
  • anxiety;
  • family history;
  • health care utilization;
  • headache;
  • psychiatric


We sought to examine the relationship of family history of headache and family history of psychiatric disorders on self-reported health care utilization tendencies for migraine treatment.


Familial aggregation of both migraine and depression has been well established in the literature. Family history of headache and psychiatric disorders could influence health care utilization tendencies for migraine.


This is a secondary analysis of patients with severe migraine (n = 225) who answered questions about their family history, previous headache treatment history, disability (Headache Disability Inventory), and psychiatric symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory). Using regression, we examined the relationship between family history of headache, depression, and anxiety and reported headache-related health care utilization.


Participants reported family histories of headache (67.6%), anxiety (15.6%), and depression (29.3%). Participants reported seeing a physician for headache an average of 3.1 (standard deviation = 3.8) times in the past 2 years. In a 2-year period, 27.6% of participants reported seeing a general practitioner and 18.5% of participants reported seeing a neurologist. Twenty-eight percent of participants went to urgent care for headaches at least once in the last 2 years. Thirty-nine percent of participants reported using non-pharmacologic treatment for headache in the prior 2 years, with the highest rates of chiropractic manipulation (27.1%) and massage (18.2%), and fewest rates of biofeedback (0.4%), relaxation training (4.4%), psychotherapy (1.8%), physical therapy (4.9%), or acupuncture (1.8%). Family history of anxiety was associated with trying non-pharmacologic treatments for headache, but no other self-reported health care utilization variable. However, neither family history of headache nor family history of depression was associated with self-reported health care utilization tendencies. Headache Disability Inventory was associated with self-reported non-pharmacologic treatments for headache.


Family history of anxiety, but not depression, was associated with utilizing non-pharmacologic treatments for headache. Also, disability was associated with utilizing non-pharmacologic treatments for headache. However, participants reported low rates of utilization for non-pharmacologic treatments with grade-A evidence.