Conflict of Interest: None.
Headaches, Quality of Life, and Academic Performance in Schoolchildren and Adolescents
Article first published online: 4 JUN 2014
© 2014 American Headache Society
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 54, Issue 7, pages 1194–1202, July/August 2014
How to Cite
Rocha-Filho, P. A.S. and Santos, P. V. (2014), Headaches, Quality of Life, and Academic Performance in Schoolchildren and Adolescents. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 54: 1194–1202. doi: 10.1111/head.12394
- Issue published online: 16 JUL 2014
- Article first published online: 4 JUN 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 MAR 2014
- quality of life;
- educational measurement;
- study performance;
Just a few studies to date have focused on headaches, quality of life, and academic performance in children.
Determine the effect of headaches on the life of schoolchildren and the association between headaches and academic performance.
We conducted a cross-sectional study. One hundred and ninety-five students from an elementary school were randomly selected out of 355 students aged from 10 to 15 years old. Semi-structured interview, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used. The variables relating to academic performance were obtained by consulting the academic records.
Prevalence of headaches: headache: 97.3% (179/184); migraine: 51% (94/184); tension-type headache: 33% (61/184); primary stabbing headache: 7.6% (14/184); unclassified headaches: 5.4% (10/184). Migraine (relative risk: 3.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-6.30) and more severe headaches (relative risk: 7.93; 95% confidence interval: 2.65-23.7) were associated with lower quality of life (P < .01; multivariate logistic regression). More severe headaches were associated with lower grades in school (P < .01; multiple linear regression). Variables relating to headaches were not associated with “failing the school year” (P > .05; chi-square test and Fisher's exact test).
Headaches were found to be associated with lower quality of life and poor academic performance.