Alice in Wonderland Syndrome, Burning Mouth Syndrome, Cold Stimulus Headache, and HaNDL: Narrative Review

Authors

  • Marcelo M. Valença MD, PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Neurology and Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil
    2. Neurology and Neurosurgery Unit, Hospital Esperança, Brazil
    • Address all correspondence to M.M. Valença, Neurology and Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Federal University of Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50670-420 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

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  • Daniella A. de Oliveira PhD,

    1. Neurology and Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil
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  • Hugo André de L. Martins MD, PhD


  • Conflict of Interest: None.

Abstract

Background

Unusual headache syndromes are not as infrequent in clinical practice as was generally believed. About three fourths of the classified headache disorders found in the ICHD-II can be considered rare.

Objective

The aim of this narrative review was to perform a literature review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and treatment of the following unusual headache disorders: Alice in Wonderland syndrome, burning mouth syndrome, cold stimulus headache, and the syndrome of transient headache and neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis.

Method

A literature review was performed using PubMed for each of the abovementioned headache disorders.

Conclusion

The unusual headache syndromes as a distinct group of disorders are not as infrequent in clinical practice as was generally believed. Some of them, albeit considered as unusual, may occur with relative frequency, such as cold stimulus headache and burning mouth syndrome.

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