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Clinical Evaluation of a Ten-Day Regimen with Esomeprazole, Metronidazole, Amoxicillin, and Clarithromycin for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in a High Clarithromycin Resistance Area

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Abstract

Background

Increasing clarithromycin resistance reduces Helicobacter pylori eradication rates with conventional triple regimens. We evaluated effectiveness and safety of a 10-day-quadruple nonbismuth containing regimen, as first-line treatment or second-line treatment (after conventional triple) for H. pylori, and assessed impact of antibiotic resistance on treatment success.

Materials and methods

Eligible patients had upper GI endoscopy and positive CLO-test, also confirmed by histology and/or culture. The eradication scheme comprised: Esomeprazole 40 mg, Metronidazole 500 mg, Amoxicillin 1000 mg, and Clarithromycin 500 mg, twice daily, for 10 days. Treatment adherence and adverse effects were recorded. Eradication was tested by 13C-urea breath test or histology.

Results

One hundred and ninety out of 198 patients (115M/83F, aged 18–81, mean 52 years, 37% smokers, 27% ulcer disease) who completed the study protocol were evaluated for eradication. Adherence to treatment was 97.7% (95% CI 95.9–99.6). Six (3.2%) patients experienced severe side effects and discontinued treatment. Intention to treat and per protocol analysis in first line was 91.5% (95% CI 86.2–94.8) and 95% (95% CI 90.4–97.4) and in second line was 60.6% (95% CI 43.6–75.3) and 64.5% (95% CI 46.9–78.8), respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed in 106 of 124 (85%) patients who gave consent. Among them 42 (40%) harbored clarithromycin resistant strains. Eradication rates were significantly higher in sensitive and single clarithromycin or metronidazole resistant (37/37, 100% and 43/47, 91%) than in dual resistant strains (12/22, 55%) (p < .0001). Specifically, concomitant regimen eradicated 7/10, 70% of dual resistant strains as first-line treatment and 5/12, 42% as second-line treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that dual resistance was the only independent significant predictor of treatment failure.

Conclusions

The 10-days “concomitant” regimen is effective and safe first-line H. pylori treatment, in a high clarithromycin resistance area, although dual antibiotic resistance may compromise its effectiveness.

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