Declining Helicobacter pylori prevalence rates have resulted in a decrease of peptic ulcer bleeding incidence. Moreover, eradication reduces peptic ulcer recurrence rate. Newer studies confirm that H. pylori eradication lowers the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. Guidelines therefore advocate a test-and-treat strategy for patients with a history of ulcer bleeding and NSAIDs and/or aspirin use. There is mounting evidence that H. pylori status has no effect on symptoms and treatment efficacy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Some studies observed an improvement of GERD complaints after H. pylori eradication, which underlines that H. pylori treatment is not contra-indicated in GERD patients. The exact role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia (FD) remains controversial. However, there is growing consensus that H. pylori-positive FD should be assessed as a separate entity. In these patients, eradication can be beneficial and appropriate. Finally, several studies suggest that H. pylori infection may also be associated with beneficial effects for the host. Epidemiologic studies showed an inverse relation between H. pylori infection and asthma and allergy, although data are conflicting and need to be expanded.