• 1
    NHS Kidney Disease Key Facts and Figures (2010) NHS Kidney Care. Nottinghamshire: East Midlands Public Health Observatory (EMPHO). Available:, Accessed June 2010.
  • 2
    Stevens PE. O'Donoghue D.J. de Lusignan, S. Van Vlymen J. Klebe, B. Middleton, R. Chronic kidney disease management in the United Kingdom: NEOERICA project results. Kidney International, 2007; 72: 9299.
  • 3
    Levey AS, Coresh J. Chronic Kidney Disease. Lancet, 2012; 379: 165180. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736 (11) 60178-5
  • 4
    NICE Chronic Kidney Disease: national clinical guidance for early identification and management in adults in primary and secondary care. London: Royal College of Physicians, September 2008 London, UK.
  • 5
    Griffith KE, Kalra PA. Ten Steps before you refer for Chronic Kidney Disease. The British Journal of Cardiology, 2010; 17: 8185.
  • 6
    Sharma P, McCullough K, Scotland G, Prescott G, Fluck N, Cairns Smith W. Does stage-3 chronic kidney disease matter? A systematic literature review. British Journal of General Practice, 2010; 60: 266276. doi: 10.3399/bjgp10X502173
  • 7
    Stevens KK, Woo YM, Rodger RSC, Geddes CC. Discharging patients from the nephrology clinic to primary care-will they get appropriate monitoring of renal function. QJM An International Journal of Medicine, 2009; 102: 425428.
  • 8
    Klebe B, Farmer C, Cooley R et. al. Kidney disease management in UK Primary Care: guidelines, incentives and information technology. Family Practice, 2007; 4: 330335.
  • 9
    Meran S, Don K, Shah N, Donovan K, Riley S, Phillips AO. Impact of chronic kidney disease management in primary care. QJM An International Journal of Medicine, 2011; 104: 2734.
  • 10
    De Coster C, McCaughlin K, Noseworthy TW. Criteria for referring patients with renal disease for nephrology consultation: a review of the literature. Journal of Nephrology, 2010; 23: 399407. no.4
  • 11
    Navaneethan SD, Kandula P, Jeevanantham V, Nally JV, Jr, Liebman SE. Referral patterns of primary care physicians for chronic kidney disease in general population and geriatric patients. Clinical Nephrology, 2010; 73: 260267.
  • 12
    Navaneethan SD, Aloudat S, Singh S. A systematic review of patient and health system characteristics associated with late referral in chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrology, 2008; 9: 3. doi:10.1186/1471-2369-9-3
  • 13
    Lee BJ, Forbes K. The role of specialists in managing the health of populations with chronic illness: the example of chronic kidney disease. British Medical Journal, 2010; 339: 800802. doi:10.1136/bmj.b2395
  • 14
    Mukoro F. Evaluation of New Features of Renal Patient View: Phase 1 Report NHS Kidney Care. 2011 Accessed: January 2012, Available:
  • 15
    Staples P, Earle W. The nature of telephone nursing interventions in a heart failure clinic setting. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 2008; 18: 2733. no.4
  • 16
    McManus RJ, Mant J, Bray EP Telemonitoring and self-management in the control of hypertension (TASMINH2): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 2010; 376: 144146.
  • 17
    Wu L, Forbes A, Griffiths P, Milligan P, While A. Telephone follow-up to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Diabetic Medicine, 2010; 27: 12171225.
  • 18
    Jaatinen PT, Aarnio P, Reemes J, Hannukainen J, Koymari-Seilonen T. Teleconsultation as a replacement for referral to an outpatient clinic. Journal of Telemedicine & Telecare, 2002; 8: 102106.
  • 19
    Liddy C, Dusseault J, Dahrouge S, Hogg W, Lemelin J, Humbert J. Tele-homecare for patients with multiple chronic illnesses. Canadian Family Physician, 2008; 54: 5865.
  • 20
    Campbell KH, Smith SG, Hemmerich J, Stankus N, Fox C, Mold JW. Patient and provider determinants of nephrology referral in older patients with severe chronic kidney disease: a survey of provider decision making. BMC Nephrology, 2011; 12: 4757.
  • 21
    Miles MB, Huberman M. Qualitative Data Analysis: an expanded sourcebook. London: Sage, 1994.
  • 22
    Mannion R. General practitioner-led commissioning in the NHS: progress, prospects and pitfalls. British Medical Bulletin, 2011; 97: 715. no.1, DOI:10.1093/bmb/ldq042
  • 23
    Brook RH. Appropriateness: the next frontier. British Medical Journal, 1994; 308: 218219. doi: 10.1136/bmj.308.6923.218
  • 24
    Department of Health, 2010. Equity and excellence: Liberating the NHS White Paper. London, UK: HMO Stationery Office, ISBN: 9780101788120
  • 25
    Coull N, Rottenberg G, Rankin S Assessing the feasibility of a one-stop approach to diagnosis for urological patients. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 2009; 91: 305309. doi: 10.1308/003588409X391802
  • 26
    Kahneman D. Thinking, fast and slow. London: Penguin, 2011.
  • 27
    Stoves J, Connolly J, Cheung CK Electronic consultation as an alternative to hospital referral for patients with chronic kidney disease: a novel application for networked electronic health records to improve the accessibility and efficiency of healthcare. British Medical Journal: Quality and Safety in Health Care, 2009; 19: 14. doi:10.1136/qshc.2009.038984.
  • 28
    Coulter A. Do patients want a choice and does it work? British Medical Journal, 2010; 341: 973975. doi. 10.1136/bmj.c4989.