Crusade Creationism versus Pope Urban II's Conceptualization of the Crusades


  • Paul E. Chevedden

  • The present article owes its origin to a talk delivered at the 47th International Congress on Medieval Studies in May 2012 at Kalamazoo, Michigan, under the title, “The Norman-Sicilian Genesis of Crusading versus Crusade Creationism.” I thank the Texas Medieval Association for sponsoring the panel on which I spoke, and the panel's respondent, James Muldoon of the John Carter Brown Library, for his insightful comments. I also thank Donald J. Kagay of Albany State University for help on some of the Latin texts discussed herein, and Alexandru Anca of the University of Bamberg for assistance in translating Hans Eberhard Mayer's definition of “crusade.” My debt to Diana Darke is made explicit in n127.