• 1
    Deeks SG. HIV infection, inflammation, immunosenescence, and aging. Annu Rev Med 2011; 62: 141155.
  • 2
    Smith C, Sabin CA, Lundgren JD et al. Factors associated with specific causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study. AIDS 2010; 24: 15371548.
  • 3
    Brenchley JM, Douek DC. HIV infection and the gastrointestinal immune system. Mucosal Immunol 2008; 1: 2330.
  • 4
    Brenchley JM, Price DA, Schacker TW et al. Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. Nat Med 2006; 12: 13651371.
  • 5
    Landmann R, Knopf HP, Link S, Sansano S, Schumann R, Zimmerli W. Human monocyte CD14 is upregulated by lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun 1996; 64: 17621769.
  • 6
    Giorgi JV, Hultin LE, McKeating JA et al. Shorter survival in advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is more closely associated with T lymphocyte activation than with plasma virus burden or virus chemokine coreceptor usage. J Infect Dis 1999; 179: 859870.
  • 7
    Hunt PW, Cao HL, Muzoora C et al. Impact of CD8+ T-cell activation on CD4+ T-cell recovery and mortality in HIV-infected Ugandans initiating antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2011; 25: 21232131.
  • 8
    Hunt PW, Rodriguez B, Shive C et al. Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction, inflammation, and coagulation predict higher mortality during treated HIV/AIDS. 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Seattle, WA, March 2012.
  • 9
    Sandler NG, Wand H, Roque A et al. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 independently predict mortality in HIV infection. J Infect Dis 2011; 203: 780790.
  • 10
    Hunt PW, Martin JN, Sinclair E et al. T cell activation is associated with lower CD4+ T cell gains in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with sustained viral suppression during antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis 2003; 187: 15341543.
  • 11
    Troseid M, Nowak P, Nystrom J, Lindkvist A, Abdurahman S, Sonnerborg A. Elevated plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide and high mobility group box-1 protein are associated with high viral load in HIV-1 infection: reduction by 2-year antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2010; 24: 17331737.
  • 12
    Jiang W, Lederman MM, Hunt P et al. Plasma levels of bacterial DNA correlate with immune activation and the magnitude of immune restoration in persons with antiretroviral-treated HIV infection. J Infect Dis 2009; 199: 11771185.
  • 13
    Lichtenstein KA, Armon C, Buchacz K et al. Low CD4+ T cell count is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease events in the HIV outpatient study. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51: 435447.
  • 14
    Obel N, Thomsen HF, Kronborg G et al. Ischemic heart disease in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals: a population-based cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 44: 16251631.
  • 15
    Kelley CF, Kitchen CM, Hunt PW et al. Incomplete peripheral CD4+ cell count restoration in HIV-infected patients receiving long-term antiretroviral treatment. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 787794.
  • 16
    Triant VA, Regan S, Lee H, Sax PE, Meigs JB, Grinspoon SK. Association of immunologic and virologic factors with myocardial infarction rates in a US healthcare system. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 55: 615619.
  • 17
    Mocroft A, Reiss P, Gasiorowski J et al. Serious fatal and nonfatal non-AIDS-defining illnesses in Europe. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 55: 262270.
  • 18
    Thiebaut R, El-Sadr WM, Friis-Moller N et al. Predictors of hypertension and changes of blood pressure in HIV-infected patients. Antivir Ther 2005; 10: 811823.
  • 19
    Crane HM, Van Rompaey SE, Kitahata MM. Antiretroviral medications associated with elevated blood pressure among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2006; 20: 10191026.
  • 20
    Palacios R, Santos J, Garcia A et al. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on blood pressure in HIV-infected patients. A prospective study in a cohort of naive patients. HIV Med 2006; 7: 1015.
  • 21
    Manner IW, Troseid M, Oektedalen O, Baekken M, Os I. Low nadir CD4 cell count predicts sustained hypertension in HIV-infected individuals. J Clin Hypertens 2012; doi:10.1111/jch.12029 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 22
    Manner IW, Baekken M, Oektedalen O, Os I. Hypertension and antihypertensive treatment in HIV-infected individuals. A longitudinal cohort study. Blood Press 2012; 21: 311319.
  • 23
    Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150: 604612.
  • 24
    Draisma A, Bemelmans R, van der Hoeven JG, Spronk P, Pickkers P. Microcirculation and vascular reactivity during endotoxemia and endotoxin tolerance in humans. Shock 2009; 31: 581585.
  • 25
    Dauphinee SM, Karsan A. Lipopolysaccharide signaling in endothelial cells. Lab Invest 2006; 86: 922.
  • 26
    Bannerman DD, Goldblum SE. Mechanisms of bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial apoptosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2003; 284: L899L914.
  • 27
    Cohn JN, Duprez DA, Grandits GA. Arterial elasticity as part of a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular risk and drug treatment. Hypertension 2005; 46: 217220.
  • 28
    Wiedermann CJ, Kiechl S, Dunzendorfer S et al. Association of endotoxemia with carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease: prospective results from the Bruneck Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 34: 19751981.
  • 29
    Kelesidis T, Kendall MA, Yang OO, Hodis HN, Currier JS. Biomarkers of microbial translocation and macrophage activation: association with progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis 2012; 206: 15581567.
  • 30
    Troseid M, Seljeflot I, Weiss TW, Klemsdal TO, Hjerkinn EM, Arnesen H. Arterial stiffness is independently associated with interleukin-18 and components of the metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis 2010; 209: 337339.
  • 31
    Amar J, Ruidavets JB, Bal Dit SC et al. Soluble CD14 and aortic stiffness in a population-based study. J Hypertens 2003; 21: 18691877.
  • 32
    Torriani FJ, Komarow L, Parker RA et al. Endothelial function in human immunodeficiency virus-infected antiretroviral-naive subjects before and after starting potent antiretroviral therapy: the ACTG (AIDS Clinical Trials Group) Study 5152s. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 52: 569576.
  • 33
    Kaplan RC, Sinclair E, Landay AL et al. T cell activation predicts carotid artery stiffness among HIV-infected women. Atherosclerosis 2011; 217: 207213.
  • 34
    Zhang ZH, Yu Y, Wei SG, Felder RB. Centrally administered lipopolysaccharide elicits sympathetic excitation via NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. J Hypertens 2010; 28: 806816.
  • 35
    Cole SW, Naliboff BD, Kemeny ME, Griswold MP, Fahey JL, Zack JA. Impaired response to HAART in HIV-infected individuals with high autonomic nervous system activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001; 98: 1269512700.
  • 36
    Lund DD, Brooks RM, Faraci FM, Heistad DD. Role of angiotensin II in endothelial dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007; 293: H3726H3731.
  • 37
    Harrison DG, Guzik TJ, Lob HE et al. Inflammation, immunity, and hypertension. Hypertension 2011; 57: 132140.
  • 38
    Sesso HD, Buring JE, Rifai N, Blake GJ, Gaziano JM, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein and the risk of developing hypertension. JAMA 2003; 290: 29452951.
  • 39
    Sodora DL, Silvestri G. Immune activation and AIDS pathogenesis. AIDS 2008; 22: 439446.
  • 40
    Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Arnett DK et al. Contribution of metabolic and anthropometric abnormalities to cardiovascular disease risk factors. Circulation 2008; 118: e20e28.