• 1
    Antinori A, Arendt G, Becker JT et al. Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology 2007; 69: 17891799.
  • 2
    Lindl KA, Marks DR, Kolson DL, Jordan-Sciutto KL. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2010; 5: 294309.
  • 3
    Heaton RK, Clifford DB, Franklin DR, Jr et al. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: CHARTER Study. Neurology 2010; 75: 20872096.
  • 4
    Valcour V, Paul R. HIV infection and dementia in older adults. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42: 14491454.
  • 5
    Reddy PV, Pilakka-Kanthikeel S, Saxena SK et al. Interactive effects of morphine on HIV infection: role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. AIDS Res Treat 2012; 2012: 953678.
  • 6
    HIV-Associated Dementia and Other Neurocognitive Disorders. Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care. New Jersey, HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau, 2012.
  • 7
    Letendre SL, Ellis RJ, Ances BM, McCutchan JA. Neurologic complications of HIV disease and their treatment. Top HIV Med 2010; 18: 4555.
  • 8
    Joska JA, Westgarth-Taylor J, Hoare J et al. Neuropsychological outcomes in adults commencing highly active anti-retroviral treatment in South Africa: a prospective study. BMC Infect Dis 2012; 12: 18.
  • 9
    Tozzi V, Balestra P, Bellagamba R et al. Persistence of neuropsychologic deficits despite long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-related neurocognitive impairment: prevalence and risk factors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007; 45: 174182.
  • 10
    Hinkin CH, Hardy DJ, Mason KI et al. Medication adherence in HIV-infected adults: effect of patient age, cognitive status, and substance abuse. AIDS 2004; 18 (Suppl 1): S19S25.
  • 11
    R Heaton DF, Woods S et al. Asymptomatic mild HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorder Increases Risk for Future Symptomatic Decline. (CROI 2012) 2012: Seattle.
  • 12
    Slainte DoHAR. Childrens Hospital Submission St James Hospital. 2012.
  • 13
    Tuite H, Horgan. M, Mallon PWG et al. Antiretroviral treatment and viral load responses in HIV-infected patients accessing specialist care in Ireland. Poster. European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious disease (ECCMID) 2012 March 31st-April 3rd 2012.
  • 14
    Mayer KH. Assessment, diagnosis and treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND): a consensus report of the mind exchange program. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56: 10041017.
  • 15
    Tozzi V, Balestra P, Galgani S et al. Positive and sustained effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment. AIDS 1999; 13: 18891897.
  • 16
    Sacktor N. The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disease in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Neurovirol 2002; 8 (Suppl 2): 115121.
  • 17
    Taylor LE, Swan T, Mayer KH. HIV coinfection with hepatitis C virus: evolving epidemiology and treatment paradigms. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55 (Suppl 1): S33S42.
  • 18
    Tozzi V, Balestra P, Murri R et al. Neurocognitive impairment influences quality of life in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART. Int J STD AIDS 2004; 15: 254259.
  • 19
    Andrade AS, Deutsch R, Celano S et al. Relationships among neurocognitive status, medication adherence measured by pharmacy refill records, and virologic suppression in hiv-infected persons. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2012 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 20
    Treisman G, Fishman M, Schwartz J et al. Mood disorders in HIV infection. Depress Anxiety 1998; 7: 178187.
  • 21
    Dragovic G, Jevtovic D. Report on the 13th European AIDS Conference/EACS. Vojnosanitetski Pregled Military-Medical and Pharmaceutical Review 2012; 69: 9899.
  • 22
    Perez-Valero I, Heaton R, Letendre S et al. and the CHARTER Group. Validation of the EACS guidelines 2011 algorithm for detecting HAND in the CHARTER cohort. 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Seattle, WA, March 2012 [Abstract 508].
  • 23
    Power C, Johnson RT. HIV-1 associated dementia: clinical features and pathogenesis. The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques 1995; 22: 92100.
  • 24
    Navia BA, Jordan BD, Price RW. The AIDS dementia complex: I. Clinical features. Ann Neurol 1986; 19: 517524.
  • 25
    Woodford HJ, George J. Cognitive assessment in the elderly: a review of clinical methods. QJM 2007; 100: 469484.
  • 26
    Skinner S, Adewale AJ, DeBlock L et al. Neurocognitive screening tools in HIV/AIDS: comparative performance among patients exposed to antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med 2009; 10: 246252.
  • 27
    Valcour V, Paul R, Chiao S et al. Screening for cognitive impairment in human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53: 836842.
  • 28
    Ellis RJ, Evans SR, Clifford DB et al. Clinical validation of the NeuroScreen. J Neurovirol 2005; 11: 503511.
  • 29
    Koski L, Brouillette MJ, Lalonde R et al. Computerized testing augments pencil-and-paper tasks in measuring HIV-associated mild cognitive impairment(*). HIV Med 2011; 12: 472480.
  • 30
    Angelino AF, Treisman GJ. Issues in co-morbid severe mental illnesses in HIV infected individuals. Int Rev Psychiatry 2008; 20: 95101.
  • 31
    Kennelly SP, Morley D, Coughlan T et al. Knowledge, skills and attitudes of doctors towards assessing cognition in older patients in the emergency department. Postgrad Med J 2013; 89: 137141.