SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Norvir Package Insert. In: AbbVie, Inc., ed. North Chicago, IL, AbbVie, Inc., 2013. Available at www.rxabbvie.com/pdf/norvirtab_pi.pdf.
  • 2
    Winkler J, Hochhaus G, Derendorf H. How the lung handles drugs: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of inhaled corticosteroids. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2004; 1: 356363.
  • 3
    Chrousos GP, Harris AG. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression and inhaled corticosteroid therapy. 2. Review of the literature. Neuroimmunomodulation [Review]. 1998;5: 288308.
  • 4
    Lipworth BJ, Jackson CM. Safety of inhaled and intranasal corticosteroids: lessons for the new millennium. Drug Saf [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. 2000; 23: 1133.
  • 5
    Hogger P, Rohdewald P. Binding kinetics of fluticasone propionate to the human glucocorticoid receptor. Steroids [Comparative Study]. 1994; 59: 597602.
  • 6
    Flovent HFA Package Insert. In: GlaxoSmithKline, ed. Research Triangle Park, NC, GlaxoSmithKline, 2012. Available at http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_flovent_hfa.pdf.
  • 7
    Crim C, Pierre LN, Daley-Yates PT. A review of the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of inhaled fluticasone propionate and mometasone furoate. Clin Ther [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. 2001; 23: 13391354.
  • 8
    Arrington-Sanders R, Hutton N, Siberry GK. Ritonavir-fluticasone interaction causing Cushing syndrome in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25: 10441048.
  • 9
    Gray D, Roux P, Carrihill M, Klein M. Adrenal suppression and Cushing's syndrome secondary to ritonavir and budesonide. S Afr Med J 2010; 100: 296297.
  • 10
    Daveluy A, Raignoux C, Miremont-Salame G et al. Drug interactions between inhaled corticosteroids and enzymatic inhibitors. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65: 743745.
  • 11
    Bhumbra NA, Sahloff EG, Oehrtman SJ, Horner JM. Exogenous Cushing syndrome with inhaled fluticasone in a child receiving lopinavir/ritonavir. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41: 13061309.
  • 12
    Johnson SR, Marion AA, Vrchoticky T, Emmanuel PJ, Lujan-Zilbermann J. Cushing syndrome with secondary adrenal insufficiency from concomitant therapy with ritonavir and fluticasone. J Pediatr 2006; 148: 386388.
  • 13
    Mahlab-Guri K, Asher I, Gradstein S et al. Inhaled fluticasone causes iatrogenic cushing's syndrome in patients treated with Ritonavir. J Asthma 2011; 48: 860863.
  • 14
    St Germain RM, Yigit S, Wells L, Girotto JE, Salazar JC. Cushing syndrome and severe adrenal suppression caused by fluticasone and protease inhibitor combination in an HIV-infected adolescent. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2007; 21: 373377.
  • 15
    Pessanha TM, Campos JM, Barros AC, Pone MV, Garrido JR, Pone SM. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome in a adolescent with AIDSs on ritonavir and inhaled fluticasone. Case report and literature review. AIDS 2007; 21: 529532.
  • 16
    Gillett MJ, Cameron PU, Nguyen HV, Hurley DM, Mallal SA. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome in an HIV-infected patient treated with ritonavir and inhaled fluticasone. AIDS 2005; 19: 740741.
  • 17
    Valin N, De Castro N, Garrait V, Bergeron A, Bouche C, Molina JM. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome in HIV-infected patients receiving ritonavir and inhaled fluticasone: description of 4 new cases and review of the literature. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic) 2009; 8: 113121.
  • 18
    Hillebrand-Haverkort ME, Prummel MF, ten Veen JH. Ritonavir-induced Cushing's syndrome in a patient treated with nasal fluticasone. AIDS 1999; 13: 1803.
  • 19
    Chen F, Kearney T, Robinson S, Daley-Yates PT, Waldron S, Churchill DR. Cushing's syndrome and severe adrenal suppression in patients treated with ritonavir and inhaled nasal fluticasone. Sex Transm Infect 1999; 75: 274.
  • 20
    Clevenbergh P, Corcostegui M, Gerard D et al. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome in an HIV-infected patient treated with inhaled corticosteroids (fluticasone propionate) and low dose ritonavir enhanced PI containing regimen. J Infect 2002; 44: 194195.
  • 21
    Kedem E, Shahar E, Hassoun G, Pollack S. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome due to coadministration of ritonavir and inhaled budesonide in an asthmatic human immunodeficiency virus infected patient. J Asthma 2010; 47: 830831.
  • 22
    Nocent C, Raherison C, Dupon M, Taytard A. Unexpected effects of inhaled fluticasone in an HIV patient with asthma. J Asthma 2004; 41: 793795.
  • 23
    Samaras K, Pett S, Gowers A, McMurchie M, Cooper DA. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome with osteoporosis and secondary adrenal failure in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors: six cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 43944398.
  • 24
    Rouanet I, Peyriere H, Mauboussin JM, Vincent D. Cushing's syndrome in a patient treated by ritonavir/lopinavir and inhaled fluticasone. HIV Med 2003; 4: 149150.
  • 25
    Gupta SK, Dube MP. Exogenous cushing syndrome mimicking human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35: E69E71.
  • 26
    Spruyt S, Vlieghe E, Bomans P, Moerman F, Colebunders R, Van den Ende J. Inhaled corticosteroids in persons with HIV infection: not that harmless. Acta Clin Belg 2012; 67: 120122.
  • 27
    le Roux CW, Beckles MA, Besser GM, Pinching AJ, Davison AG. Cushing's syndrome secondary to inhaled corticosteroids mimicking HIV-associated lipodystrophy. HIV Med 2001; 2: 133135.
  • 28
    Yoganathan K, David L, Williams C, Jones K. Cushing's syndrome with adrenal suppression induced by inhaled budesonide due to a ritonavir drug interaction in a woman with HIV infection. Int J STD AIDS 2012; 23: 520521.
  • 29
    Bernecker C, West TB, Mansmann G, Scherbaum WA, Willenberg HS. Hypercortisolism caused by ritonavir associated inhibition of CYP 3A4 under inhalative glucocorticoid therapy. 2 case reports and a review of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2012; 120: 125127.
  • 30
    Kaviani N, Bukberg P, Manessis A, Yen V, Young I. Iatrogenic osteoporosis, bilateral HIP osteonecrosis, and secondary adrenal suppression in an HIV-infected man receiving inhaled corticosteroids and ritonavir-boosted highly active antiretroviral therapy. Endocr Pract 2011; 17: 7478.
  • 31
    Soldatos G, Sztal-Mazer S, Woolley I, Stockigt J. Exogenous glucocorticoid excess as a result of ritonavir-fluticasone interaction. Intern Med J 2005; 35: 6768.
  • 32
    St Clair K, Maguire JD. Role of fluconazole in a case of rapid onset ritonavir and inhaled fluticasone-associated secondary adrenal insufficiency. Int J STD AIDS 2012; 23: 371372.
  • 33
    Li AM. Ritonavir and fluticasone: beware of this potentially fatal combination. J Pediatr 2006; 148: 294295.
  • 34
    Foisy MM, Yakiwchuk EM, Chiu I, Singh AE. Adrenal suppression and Cushing's syndrome secondary to an interaction between ritonavir and fluticasone: a review of the literature. HIV Med 2008; 9: 389396.
  • 35
    Hopkins RL, Leinung MC. Exogenous Cushing's syndrome and glucocorticoid withdrawal. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am [Review]. 2005;34: 371384, ix.
  • 36
    Penzak SR, Formentini E, Alfaro RM, Long M, Natarajan V, Kovacs J. Prednisolone pharmacokinetics in the presence and absence of ritonavir after oral prednisone administration to healthy volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. 2005;40: 573580.
  • 37
    Woods DR, Arun CS, Corris PA, Perros P. Lesson of the week – cushing's syndrome without excess cortisol. Br Med J 2006; 332: 469470.
  • 38
    Levine D, Ananthakrishnan S, Garg A. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome after a single intramuscular corticosteroid injection and concomitant protease inhibitor therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011; 65: 877878.
  • 39
    Albert NE, Kazi S, Santoro J, Dougherty R. Ritonavir and epidural triamcinolone as a cause of iatrogenic cushing's syndrome. Am J Med Sci 2012; 344: 7274.
  • 40
    Ermis B, Ors R, Tastekin A, Ozkan B. Cushing's syndrome secondary to topical corticosteroids abuse. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2003; 58: 795796.
  • 41
    Joe EK. Cushing syndrome secondary to topical glucocorticoids. Dermatol Online J 2003; 9: 16.
  • 42
    Okasaki-Gutierrez R , Poole P , Troia-Concio P , Asmuth DM , eds. Prevalence of subclinical iatrogenic cushing's syndrome (ICS) in patients being co-administered ritonavir and corticosteroids via inhaled, intranasal and/or topical route. XIX International AIDS Conference. Washington, DC, 2012 [Poster #MOPE103].
  • 43
    Boyd S , Hadigan C , Pau A et al., eds. DRV/r Does Not Significantly Increase Plasma Concentrations of Orally Inhaled Beclomethasone in Healthy Volunteers. 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Seattle, WA, 2012 [Poster #611].
  • 44
    Boyd S , Penzak S , Nieman L et al., eds. Coadministration of Orally Inhaled Beclomethasone and HIV Protease Inhibitors Does Not Significantly Alter Adrenal Function in Healthy Volunteers. 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Seattle, WA, 2012 [Poster #610].
  • 45
    Boobis AR. Comparative physicochemical and pharmacokinetic profiles of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate and budesonide. Respir Med 1998; 92 (Suppl B): 26.
  • 46
    Esmailpour N, Hogger P, Rohdewald P. Binding kinetics of budesonide to the human glucocorticoid receptor. Eur J Pharm Sci 1998; 6: 219223.
  • 47
    Valotis A, Hogger P. Human receptor kinetics and lung tissue retention of the enhanced-affinity glucocorticoid fluticasone furoate. Respir Res 2007; 8: 54.
  • 48
    Valotis A, Hogger P. Significant receptor affinities of metabolites and a degradation product of mometasone furoate. Respir Res 2004; 5: 7.
  • 49
    Knox C, Law V, Jewison T et al. DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for ‘Omics’ research on drugs. Nucleic Acids Res 2011; 39: D1035D1041.
  • 50
    Daley-Yates PT, Price AC, Sisson JR, Pereira A, Dallow N. Beclomethasone dipropionate: absolute bioavailability, pharmacokinetics and metabolism following intravenous, oral, intranasal and inhaled administration in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 51: 400409.
  • 51
    Ryrfeldt A, Andersson P, Edsbacker S, Tonnesson M, Davies D, Pauwels R. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of budesonide, a selective glucocorticoid. Eur J Respir Dis Suppl 1982; 122: 8695.
  • 52
    Rhinocort AQ. Product Information. Wilmington, DE, AstraZeneca, 2010. Available at www1.astrazeneca-us.com/pi/Rhinocort_Aqua.pdf.
  • 53
    Pulmicort. Flexhaler Prescribing Information. Wilmington, DE, AstraZeneca LP, 2010. Available at www1.astrazeneca-us.com/pi/pulmicortfh.pdf.
  • 54
    Omnaris. Prescribing Information. Marlborough, MA, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 2010. Available at www.omnaris.com/OMNARIS-Prescribing-Information.pdf.
  • 55
    Chaplin MD, Rooks W, 2nd, Swenson EW, Cooper WC, Nerenberg C, Chu NI. Flunisolide metabolism and dynamics of a metabolite. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1980; 27: 402413.
  • 56
    Veramyst. Prescribing Information. Research Triangle Park, NC, GlaxoSmithKline, 2011. Available at http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_veramyst.pdf.
  • 57
    Flovent HFA. Prescribing Information. Research Triangle Park, NC, GlaxoSmithKline, 2010. Available at http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_flovent_hfa.pdf.
  • 58
    Nasonex. Prescribing Information. Whitehouse Station, NJ, Merck & Co., Inc, 2012. Available at www.spfiles.com/pinasonex.pdf.
  • 59
    Asmanex Twisthaler. Prescribing Information. Singapore, Merck & Co., Inc., 2012. Available at www.spfiles.com/piasmanex.pdf.
  • 60
    Argenti D, Shah B, Heald D. A pharmacokinetic study to evaluate the absolute bioavailability of triamcinolone acetonide following inhalation administration. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39: 695702.
  • 61
    QVAR. Product Information. Horsham, PA, Teva Respiratory, LLC, 2012. Available at http://qvar.com/library/docs/prescribing-information.pdf.
  • 62
    Martin LE, Harrison C, Tanner RJ. Metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate by animals and man. Postgrad Med J 1975; 51 (Suppl 4): 1120.
  • 63
    Hughes SC, Shardlow PC, Hollis FJ et al. Metabolism and disposition of fluticasone furoate, an enhanced-affinity glucocorticoid, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos S 2008; 36: 23372344.
  • 64
    Argenti D, Jensen BK, Hensel R et al. A mass balance study to evaluate the biotransformation and excretion of [14C]-triamcinolone acetonide following oral administration. J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 40: 770780.
  • 65
    Nasacort AQ. Prescribing Information. Bridgewater, NJ, Sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC, 2010. Available at http://products.sanofi.us/nasacort_aq/nasacortaq.pdf.
  • 66
    Beconase AQ. Prescribing Information. Research Triangle Park, NC, GlaxoSmithKline, 2005. Available at http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_beconase_aq.pdf.