See Appendix S1.
Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with age in HIV-positive men: a comparison of the D:A:D CVD risk equation and general population CVD risk equations†
Article first published online: 19 MAY 2014
© 2014 British HIV Association
Volume 15, Issue 10, pages 595–603, November 2014
How to Cite
Petoumenos, K., Reiss, P., Ryom, L., Rickenbach, M., Sabin, C., El-Sadr, W., d'Arminio Monforte, A., Phillips, A., De Wit, S., Kirk, O., Dabis, F., Pradier, C., Lundgren, J., Law, M. and D:A:D study group (2014), Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with age in HIV-positive men: a comparison of the D:A:D CVD risk equation and general population CVD risk equations. HIV Medicine, 15: 595–603. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12162
This work was presented as an oral abstract at Conference on Retroviruses & Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2013, 3–6 March 2013, Atlanta, GA.
- Issue published online: 21 OCT 2014
- Article first published online: 19 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 MAR 2014
- Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Oversight Committee (HAART-OC)
- Health Insurance Fund Council, Amstelveen, the Netherlands. Grant Number: CURE/97-46486
- Agence Nationale de Recherchessur le SIDA. Grant Number: Action Coordonnée no.7, Cohortes
- The Foundation for AIDS Research
- US National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Grant Numbers: U01-AI069907, 5U01AI042170-10, 5U01AI046362-03
- Merck Sharp &Dohme
- Gilead Sciences
- Bristol-Myers Squibb
- Boehringer Ingelheim
- Janssen Pharmaceuticals
- The Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing
- Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria. Grant Number: FIS 99/0887
- Fundación para la Investigación y la Prevención del SIDA en Espanã. Grant Number: FIPSE 3171/00
- BIOMED 1. Grant Number: CT94-1637
- BIOMED 2. Grant Number: CT97-2713
- European Commission. Grant Number: QLK2-2000-00773
- Swiss National Science Foundation
- cardiovascular disease;
The aim of the study was to statistically model the relative increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) per year older in Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) and to compare this with the relative increased risk of CVD per year older in general population risk equations.
We analysed three endpoints: myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD: MI or invasive coronary procedure) and CVD (CHD or stroke). We fitted a number of parametric age effects, adjusting for known risk factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. The best-fitting age effect was determined using the Akaike information criterion. We compared the ageing effect from D:A:D with that from the general population risk equations: the Framingham Heart Study, CUORE and ASSIGN risk scores.
A total of 24 323 men were included in analyses. Crude MI, CHD and CVD event rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40–45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60–65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age2 for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD and CVD per year older, which appeared to be only modest yet was consistently raised compared with the risk in the general population. The relative risk of MI with age was not different between D:A:D and the general population.
We found only limited evidence of accelerating increased risk of CVD with age in D:A:D compared with the general population. The absolute risk of CVD associated with HIV infection remains uncertain.