• Biodiversity;
  • Cabañeros National Park;
  • Ichneumonidae;
  • phenology patterns;
  • trophic guilds


  1. Invertebrates are rarely considered when designing protected areas, and their biodiversity patterns in these areas are almost always unknown.
  2. We studied the spatial and temporal diversity of Ichneumonidae in five selected habitats of Cabañeros National Park: grazing pastureland, shrubland, and three types of woodland (Pyrenean oak, cork oak, and ash woodlands). We focused on 11 subfamilies, with species classified into trophic guilds.
  3. The highest diversity and richness of Ichneumonidae were found in ash woodland and pastureland, each with similar structural habitat complexity. Species turnover between habitats was about 50% and it contributed more to the total species richness than the fauna inherent to the habitats, though less to the total species diversity.
  4. Shrubland is transitional between pasture and woodland and Ichneumonidae assemblages in this habitat are rather different in their species composition from the others.
  5. Parasitoids of phytophages are well represented in all habitats; other guilds are more related to specific habitats, e.g. parasitoids of xylophages in shrubland.
  6. We suggest that shrub may be invading and isolating some of the woodlands. The mosaic landscape of the National Park, including open areas, is essential to ensure the conservation of parasitoids.