The role of self-efficacy in health coaching and health education for patients with type 2 diabetes

Authors

  • A. Basak Cinar,

    Corresponding author
    1. Oral Public Health Department, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    • Correspondence to:

      Ayse B. Cinar,

      The Department of Odontology,

      University of Copenhagen,

      Norre Alle 20, DK–2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

      Email: aci@sund.ku.dk

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  • Lone Schou

    1. Oral Health Promotion Department, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
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Abstract

Purpose

To assess the role of toothbrushing self-efficacy (TBSE) in diabetes management by comparing health education (HE) and health coaching (HC) in type 2 diabetes.

Methods

The data [HbA1c, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL), TBSE] were collected initially and after intervention. Participants were allocated randomly to HC (= 77) and HE (= 109) groups.

Results

The low TBSE subgroup showed greater improvement in TBSE in the HC group (∆mean:23.4 ± 9.2) than the HE group (∆mean:12.4 ± 10.3), (< 0.01). The moderate TBSE group showed significant improvements only in the HC group (P < 0.001).There was a significant reduction in HbA1c and CAL in all the TBSE subgroups in HC (P < 0.05), which was significantly higher than in the HE groups (P < 0.05). Improvements in TBSE and CAL were explanatory variables for the reduction in HbA1c among the HC patients in all the TBSE subgroups (P < 0.05). Among HE patients, improvement in CAL was an explanatory variable for change at HbA1c in the low TBSE subgroup.

Conclusions

The present findings show that HC is more effective in terms of reduced HbA1c and CAL compared with HE. The data suggest that HC unlocks positive self-intrinsic motivation, anchoring the self-efficacy/competency beliefs for adjustment of healthy lifestyles. Thus, TBSE may be a practical starting point for empowerment and more effective outcomes.

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