Characterization of set Intermediate Restorative Material, Biodentine, Bioaggregate and a prototype calcium silicate cement for use as root-end filling materials

Authors

  • L. Grech,

    1. Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malta, Msida, Malta
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  • B. Mallia,

    1. Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malta, Msida, Malta
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  • J. Camilleri

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, Malta
    • Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malta, Msida, Malta
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Correspondence: Josette Camilleri, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Surgery, University of Malta,Medical School, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida MSD 2090, Malta (e-mail: josette.camilleri@um.edu.mt).

Abstract

Aim

To investigate the composition of materials and leachate of a hydrated prototype cement composed of tricalcium silicate and radiopacifier and compare this to other tricalcium silicate-based cements (Biodentine and Bioaggregate) to assess whether the additives in the proprietary brand cements affect the hydration of the materials, using Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), a standard root-end filling material as a control.

Methodology

The materials investigated included a prototype-radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine, Bioaggregate and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM). The pH and calcium ion concentration of the leachate were investigated. The hydrated cements were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

Results

All the cements tested were alkaline. The tricalcium silicate-based cements leached calcium in solution. Scanning electron microscopy of the prototype-radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine and Bioaggregate displayed hydrating cement grains, surrounded by a matrix composed of calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide. The presence of calcium hydroxide was evident from the XRD plots. FT-IR indicated the occurrence of a poorly crystalline calcium silicate hydrate. Biodentine displayed the presence of calcium carbonate. Bioaggregate incorporated a phosphate-containing phase. IRM consisted of zinc oxide interspersed in an organic matrix.

Conclusions

The hydration of prototype-radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine and Bioaggregate resulted in the formation of calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide, which was leached in solution. The hydrated materials were composed of a cementitous phase that was rich in calcium and silicon and a radiopacifying material. Biodentine included calcium carbonate, and Bioaggregate included silica and calcium phosphate in the powders. IRM was composed of zinc oxide interspersed in a matrix of organic material.

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