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Effects of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation




To evaluate the influence of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation.


Forty-five roots of human mandibular molars with curvatures of 15–25° were embedded in acrylic resin to allow standardized angulation of the initial and final radiographs. The pre-instrumentation radiographs of the mesiobuccal canal of each root were taken using a radiograph digital sensor with a size 15 K-file in the canal. The canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), using one of the following irrigation regimens during the instrumentation (= 15): G1 – irrigation with 20 mL of saline solution (control); G2 – alternating irrigation with 2.5% hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) (15 mL); and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5 mL). During instrumentation, the canal was filled with NaOCl and then between each exchange of instrument filled with EDTA for 1 min, and G3 – irrigation with 20 mL of 5% NaOCl and 18% etidronate solution (HEBP) mixed in equal parts. The postinstrumentation radiographs were made with a F3 instrument in the canal. The images were magnified and superposed with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, Mountain View, CA, USA). Apical transportation was determined with AutoCAD 2012 software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) by measuring the distance in millimetres between the tips of the instruments. The results were subjected to the nonparametric statistical Kruskal–Wallis test (α < 0.05).


The median transportation and interquartile range values were 0.00 ± 0.05 for G1, 0.08 ± 0.23 for G2 and 0.13 ± 0.14 for G3. Comparison between groups showed that apical transportation in G3 was significantly greater than in G1 (P < 0.05).


The use of NaOCl associated with etidronate increased apical transportation in the canals of extracted teeth.