Joint first authors.
Aetiology, incidence and morphology of the C-shaped root canal system and its impact on clinical endodontics
Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2014
© 2014 The Authors. International Endodontic Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Endodontic Society.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
International Endodontic Journal
Volume 47, Issue 11, pages 1012–1033, November 2014
How to Cite
Aetiology, incidence and morphology of the C-shaped root canal system and its impact on clinical endodontics. International Endodontic Journal, 47, 1012–1033, 2014., , , , , .
- Issue online: 9 OCT 2014
- Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 31 JAN 2014 11:27PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Received: 22 NOV 2013
- 3D PDF;
- C-shaped root;
- C-shaped root canal;
- dental morphology;
- gutter-shaped root;
The C-shaped root canal constitutes an unusual root morphology that can be found primarily in mandibular second permanent molars. Due to the complexity of their structure, C-shaped root canal systems may complicate endodontic interventions. A thorough understanding of root canal morphology is therefore imperative for proper diagnosis and successful treatment. This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding C-shaped roots and root canals, from basic morphology to advanced endodontic procedures. To this end, a systematic search was conducted using the MEDLINE, BIOSIS, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, PLoS and BioMed Central databases, and many rarely cited articles were included. Furthermore, four interactive 3D models of extracted teeth are introduced that will allow for a better understanding of the complex C-shaped root canal morphology. In addition, the present publication includes an embedded best-practice video showing an exemplary root canal procedure on a tooth with a pronounced C-shaped root canal. The survey of this unusual structure concludes with a number of suggestions concerning future research efforts.