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Nanoscale science and engineering, or “nanotechnology” as it is commonly known, has been a fundamental component of glass technology for hundreds if not thousands of years. Numerous examples can be found where our understanding of glass at the nanoscale level has proved transformational in the fabrication and application of this material. Among these are band theory, photosensitivity, ligand field theory, glass structure, microcrack theory, amorphous phase separation, controlled crystallization, and surface modification. Modern applications of glass in such diverse fields as energy, medicine, electronics, photonics, and communications are critically dependent on our awareness and appreciation of the intrinsic connections between glass and nanotechnology. Starting at the low end of the nanoscale, we review fundamental aspects of these connections with the intent of drawing attention to their role in both contemporary and future glass science and engineering. We argue that many of the most useful and interesting behaviors of glass are born at the nanoscale, even when we initially do not notice it.