• 1
    Rizzoli R, Yasothan U, Kirkpatrick P. Denosumab. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2010; 9: 5912.
  • 2
    Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, McCloskey EV. Assessment of fracture risk. Eur J Radiol 2009; 71: 3927.
  • 3
    Hussar DA, Stevenson T. New drugs: denosumab, dienogest/estradiol valerate, and polidocanol. J Am Pharm Assoc 2010; 50: 65862.
  • 4
    Papaioannou A, Kennedy CC, Ioannidis G et al. The impact of incident fractures on health-related quality of life: 5 years of data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int 2009; 20: 70314.
  • 5
    Papaioannou A, Joseph L, Ioannidis G et al. Risk factors associated with incident clinical vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Osteoporos Int 2005; 16: 56878.
  • 6
    Perez-Lopez FR. Vitamin D and its implications for musculoskeletal health in women: an update. Maturitas 2007; 58: 11737.
  • 7
    Belavic JM. Denosumab (Prolia): a new option in the treatment of osteoporosis. Nurse Pract 2011; 36: 112.
  • 8
    Brown JP, Fortier M. Canadian Consensus Conference on Osteoporosis, 2006 Update. J Obstet Gynec Canada 2006; 172: S95112.
  • 9
    Goltzman D. Discoveries, drugs and skeletal disorders. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2002; 1: 78496.
  • 10
    MacLean C, Newberry S, Maglione M et al. Systematic review: comparative effectiveness of treatments to prevent fractures in men and women with low bone density or osteoporosis. Ann Intern Med 2008; 148: 197213.
  • 11
    Prolia Product Monograph. Amgen Canada Inc, October 2011.
  • 12
    Lipton A, Goessl C. Clinical development of anti-RANKL therapies for treatment and prevention of bone metastasis. Bone 2011; 48: 969.
  • 13
    Bone HG, Bolognese MA, Yuen CK et al. Effects of denosumab treatment and discontinuation on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96: 97280.
  • 14
    Papaioannou A, Morin S, Cheung AM et al. 2010 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada: summary. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal 2010; 182: 186473.
  • 15
    Papaioannou A, Morin S, Cheung AM et al. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis in Canada: Background and Technical Report. 2010 (accessed November 2011).
  • 16
    Osteoporosis Society of Canada. Ontario’s strategy paves the way for better care across Canada. Osteoporos Update 2005; 9: 67.
  • 17
    Leslie WD, O’Donnell S, Lagace C et al. Population-based Canadian hip fracture rates with international comparisons. Osteoporos Int 2010; 21: 131722.
  • 18
    Adachi JD, Adami S, Gehlbach S et al. Impact of prevalent fractures on quality of life: baseline results from the global longitudinal study of osteoporosis in women. Mayo Clin Proc 2010; 85: 80613.
  • 19
    Bolland MJ, Grey AB, Gamble GD, Reid IR. Effect of osteoporosis treatment on mortality: a meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95: 117481.
  • 20
    Hiligsmann M, Rabenda V, Bruyere O, Reginster JY. The clinical and economic burden of non-adherence with oral bisphosphonates in osteoporotic patients. Health Policy 2010; 96: 1707.
  • 21
    Bessette L, Ste-Marie LG, Jean S et al. The care gap in diagnosis and treatment of women with a fragility fracture. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19: 7986.
  • 22
    Miller PD, Bolognese MA, Lewiecki EM et al. Effect of denosumab on bone density and turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mass after long-term continued, discontinued, and restarting of therapy: a randomized blinded phase 2 clinical trial. Bone 2008; 43: 2229.
  • 23
    Brown JP, Josse RG. 2002 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada. CMAJ 2002; 167: S134.
  • 24
    Seeman E. Reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption: rational targets for the treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 2003; 14(Suppl. 3): S28.
  • 25
    Manolagas SC. Birth and death of bone cells: basic regulatory mechanisms and implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 2000; 21: 11537.
  • 26
    Weitzmann MN, Pacifici R. Estrogen deficiency and bone loss: an inflammatory tale. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 118694.
  • 27
    Rosen CJ, Bilezikian JP. Anabolic Therapy for Osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 95764.
  • 28
    Pallan S, Khan A. Primary hyperparathyroidism: Update on presentation, diagnosis, and management in primary care. Can Fam Physician 2011; 57: 1849.
  • 29
    Hanley DA, Watson PM, Hodsman AB, Dempster DM. Pharmacologic Mechanisms of Therapeutics: Parathyroid Hormone. In: Bilezikian JP, Raisz LG, Martin TJ, eds. Principles of Bone Biology. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2008: : 166195.
  • 30
    File E, Deal C. Clinical update on teriparatide. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2009; 11: 16976.
  • 31
    Baron R, Ferrari S, Russell RG. Denosumab and bisphosphonates: different mechanisms of action and effects. Bone 2011; 48: 67792.
  • 32
    Marie PJ, Kassem M. Osteoblasts in osteoporosis: past, emerging, and future anabolic targets. Eur J Endocrinol 2011; 165: 110.
  • 33
    Cranney Ae G, Willan A, Griffith L et al. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. II. Meta-analysis of alendronate for the treatment of postmenopausal women. Endocr Rev 2002; 23: 50816.
  • 34
    Russell RGG, Watts NB, Ebetino FH, Rogers MJ. Mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates: similarities and differences and their potential influence on clinical efficacy. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19: 73359.
  • 35
    Russell RG, Rogers MJ. Bisphosphonates: from the laboratory to the clinic and back again. Bone 1999; 25: 97106.
  • 36
    Ettinger B, Black DM, Mitlak BH et al. Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Investigators. JAMA 1999; 282: 63745.
  • 37
    Apo-Raloxifene Product Monograph. Apotex Inc, March 24, 2006.
  • 38
    Yan MZ, Xu Y, Gong YX et al. Raloxifene inhibits bone loss and improves bone strength through an OPG-independent mechanism. Endocrine 2010; 37: 5561.
  • 39
    Delmas PD. Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Lancet 2002; 359: 201826.
  • 40
    PEPI Trial Writing Group. Effects of hormone therapy on bone mineral density: results from the postmenopausal estrogen/progestin interventions (PEPI) trial. The Writing Group for the PEPI. JAMA 1996; 276: 138996.
  • 41
    Moen MD, Keam SJ. Denosumab: a review of its use in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Drugs Aging 2011; 28: 6382.
  • 42
    Lewiecki EM. Treatment of osteoporosis with denosumab. Maturitas 2010; 66: 1826.
  • 43
    Papapoulos S, Chapurlat R, Libanati C et al. Five years of denosumab exposure in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: Results from the first two years of the FREEDOM extension. J Bone Miner Res 2012; 27: 694701.
  • 44
    Brown JP, Prince RL, Deal C et al. Comparison of the effect of denosumab and alendronate on BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: a randomized, blinded, phase 3 trial. J Bone Miner Res 2009; 24: 15361.
  • 45
    Seeman E, Delmas PD, Hanley DA et al. Microarchitectural deterioration of cortical and trabecular bone: differing effects of denosumab and alendronate. J Bone Miner Res 2010; 25: 188694.
  • 46
    Dore RK. Data from extension trials: denosumab and zoledronic acid. Curr Osteoporos Rep 2012; 10: 1621.
  • 47
    Kendler DL, Roux C, Benhamou CL et al. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women transitioning from alendronate therapy. J Bone Miner Res 2010; 25: 7281.
  • 48
    Cummings SR, San Martin J, McClung MR et al. Denosumab for prevention of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. [Erratum appears in N Engl J Med. 2009 Nov 5;361(19):1914]. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 75665.
  • 49
    Fosamax Product Monograph. Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, 2010.
  • 50
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB et al. Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group. Lancet 1996; 348: 153541.
  • 51
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson DE et al. Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: results from the Fracture Intervention Trial. JAMA 1998; 280: 207782.
  • 52
    Actonel Product Monograph. Warner Chilcott Canada Co., 2011.
  • 53
    Harris ST, Watts NB, Genant HK et al. Effects of risedronate treatment on vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. Vertebral Efficacy With Risedronate Therapy (VERT) Study Group. JAMA 1999; 282: 134452.
  • 54
    McClung MR, Geusens P, Miller PD et al. Effect of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. Hip Intervention Program Study Group. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 33340.
  • 55
    Aclasta Product Monograph. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc., 2011.
  • 56
    Black DM, Delmas PD, Eastell R et al. Once-yearly zoledronic acid for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 180922.
  • 57
    Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 288: 32133.
  • 58
    Forteo Product Monograph. Eli Lilly Canada Inc., 2009.
  • 59
    Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR et al. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1–34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 143441.