Psoriasis and comorbidities in a southern Brazilian population: a case–control study

Authors

  • Dóris B. Menegon RN, MS,

    Corresponding author
    1. School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul [UFRGS]), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    2. Department of Dermatology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    3. Public Health Nursing Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    • Correspondence

      Dóris B. Menegon, rn, ms

      Public Health Nursing Service

      Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre

      Ramiro Barcelos 2350

      Porto Alegre, RS 90035-903

      Brazil

      E-mail: dmenegon@hcpa.ufrgs.br

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  • Ana G. Pereira RN,

    1. School of Nursing, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
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  • Anna C. Camerin MD,

    1. School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul [UFRGS]), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
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  • Tania Cestari MD, PhD

    1. School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul [UFRGS]), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    2. Department of Dermatology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
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  • Funding: Fundo de Incentivo à Pesquisa (FIPE) of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA) and National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnológico [CNPq]) of Brazil.
  • Conflicts of interest: None.

Abstract

Background

Psoriasis is a chronic disease with worldwide prevalences of 0.6–4.8%. Its inherent chronic inflammatory component predisposes patients to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the associations of psoriasis with comorbidities and health risk factors such as smoking and alcohol intake, and to examine demographic differences in its occurrence in a southern Brazil population.

Methods

A case–control study was conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre between April 2009 and March 2011. The sample comprised 350 patients with psoriasis and 346 healthy control subjects. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Tobacco load and alcohol consumption per person were investigated. Physical examination included blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI) calculation. Clinical evaluation investigated whether psoriasis was localized or widespread and the percentage of body surface area (BSA) affected.

Results

Psoriasis patients exhibited an increased WC (< 0.01) and BMI (= 0.01) and higher incidences of smoking (< 0.01) and depression (< 0.01) than control subjects. A comparison of patients with involvement of <20% and >20% of BSA revealed significant differences in prevalences of hypertension (= 0.03) and diabetes (< 0.01).

Conclusions

The present study demonstrated higher incidences of depression, increased WC, overweight, obesity, and smoking in psoriasis patients compared with controls. Patients with >20% of BSA affected were 1.69 times more likely to have hypertension and 2.9 times more likely to have diabetes. Healthcare providers should be alert to the increased cardiovascular risk and metabolic specificities of patients with psoriasis. Appropriate information on healthy lifestyle habits, including maintenance of a healthy weight and participation in physical exercise, and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are fundamental.

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