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Abstract

Objectives

Leprosy can have diverse cutaneous and occasionally perplexing presentations. We report an unusual case of lepromatous leprosy (LL) with annular lesions resembling erythema gyratum repens.

Report

A 55-year-old man presented with a symmetrical, hypopigmented, and erythematous rash of bizarre appearance over the lateral aspect of the upper arm, and anterior and posterior aspects of the trunk of two months' duration. He gave a history of self-resolving episodes of bilateral pedal edema, and numbness and pricking sensations in both the hands and feet, which had occurred intermittently over the previous six years. An ulcer measuring 2 cm in size was present over the adjacent surface of the right first and second toes. The bilateral ulnar and radial cutaneous nerves were symmetrically thickened.

Results

Slit-skin smears revealed numerous acid-fast bacilli. Skin biopsy from the trunk showed collections of histiocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells in the dermis and around the blood vessels. The patient was diagnosed with LL and started on multibacillary multi-drug therapy.

Conclusions

Lepromatous leprosy can have varied clinical manifestations and is often a great imitator. However, the skin smear positivity, even in normal skin, symmetrical cutaneous and peripheral nerve involvement, and histopathology in the present patient were indicative of LL. This report highlights a rare presentation of leprosy. Clinicians should be aware of these rare manifestations as lepromatous cases still occur in certain regions.