The effect of cultivation system on phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity and antiproliferation activity in black and red currants was evaluated. Results from this study showed that Ribes fruit grown in organic system posses significantly higher total phenolics, especially anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP) than fruit grown in conventional system. Phenolic compounds were systematically identified and characterised by UPLC/MS Q-TOF. The mean value of total polyphenol content in organically grown currants was similar but statistically higher compared with the conventional cultivation (11831.0 and 1543.0 mg/kg of d.m., respectively). The total values of the anthocyanins in ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alder’, ‘Titania’ and ‘Rondom’ from organic and conventional farms were 1044.5 vs. 1012.4; 1568.3 vs. 1260.4; 1417.2 vs. 1382.2; and 51.8 vs. 57.9 mg kg−1 of d.m., respectively. Conventionally grown red currant had higher anthocyanin content than organically grown red currant (11.8%) but, however, organic fruits of red currant had 2.7 times higher content of oligomeric procyanidins than fruits coming from conventional cultivation. DPPH radical scavenging activity of currant varied from 28.29 to 37.08 mmol Trolox kg−1 (mean 31.20) for organic fruits and from 12.67 to 31.18 mmol Trolox kg−1 (mean 25.76) for conventional fruits. Moreover, all currants from organic cultivation possess higher ferric reducing capacity than conventionally grown fruits. It appeared that extracts of red Ribes cv. ‘Rondom’ coming from organic cultivation revealed stronger antiproliferative effect in comparison with conventional cultivation. However, a similar profile of activity was observed for ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alder’ and ‘Titania’ independently of the type of cultivation. These results indicate that the cultivation technique had important effect on the ranking of the cultivar systems.