Physicochemical and functional properties of flours from three Black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.) cultivars


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Flours processed from three black gram cultivars (Mash1-1, PU-19 and T-9) were studied for proximate composition, physicochemical and functional properties. Protein, fat, ash and crude fibre content varied significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from 24.5 – 28.4%, 1.1–1.4%, 2.7–3.3% and 2.7–3.4%, respectively, among the cultivars. Significant differences were also observed in other physicochemical properties. Pasting properties like peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity and setback viscosity were in the range of 2078.7–2473.0 cP, 644.0–863.7 cP and 588.3–804.0 cP, respectively. Textural profile analysis of flour gels displayed significant differences in hardness (13.0–18.9 g), gumminess (2.8–5.9 g), chewiness (2.0–5.7 g) and adhesiveness (21.0–40.9 g). Differential scanning calorimetry revealed starch gelatinisation from 63.5 to 75.6 °C and amylose lipid complex melting from 105.0 to 136.1 °C. Protein solubility profile in the pH range of 2–9 varied from 6.3 to 97.3%. Emulsifying activity index and Emulsifying stability index at pH 3, 5 and 7 varied correspondingly from 6.0 to 14.5 m2 g−1 and 18.8 to 64.9 min. Foaming capacity of 2% flour suspensions at pH 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 varied significantly from 67.3 to 130% among the cultivars. Foam stability varied at different pH and was observed between 0 and 70.8% among the cultivars.