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Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of white mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits


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Eight major mulberry cultivars [Nakhonratchasima 60 (NS 60), Buriram 60 (BR 60), Chumphon (CP), Wavee (WV), Chaingmai (CM), Pikultong (PT), Kamphaengsaen (KS) and Kamnanchul (KJ)] cultivated in Thailand were assessed for their flavonoid and phenolic acid composition using HPLC and tested for antioxidant potential using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay. The total phenolic content (TPC) ranged from 104.78 to 213.53 mg GAE/100 g DW, and total flavonoid content (TFC) ranged from 69.58 to 211.01 mg CE/100 g DW. The major flavonoid compounds in mulberry fruit cultivars were (+)-catechin (309.26–750.01 mg/100 g DW), procyanidin B1 (62.59–224.41 mg/100 g DW), quercetin (5.36–58.42 mg/100 g DW), rutin (18.73–26.90 mg/100 g DW) and (−)-epicatechin (8.47–29.21 mg/100 g DW). Gallic acid, cinnamic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were found to be the major phenolic acids in mulberry fruit cultivars. The gallic acid and cinnamic acid contents ranged from 7.33 to 23.90 mg/100 g DW and from 11.64 to 15.05 mg/100 g DW, respectively. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid content ranged from 1.77 mg/100 g DW (PT) to 7.13 mg/100 g DW (KJ). DPPH-scavenging ability was excellent for ethanolic extract of NS 60, and EC50 value of NS 60 (241.83 μg mL−1) was significantly lower than those of the others (< 0.05). TPC and TFC of the mulberry fruit were positively correlated with the DPPH-scavenging ability.