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Influence of aeration and agitation modes on solid-state fermentation of apple pomace waste by Phanerochaete chrysosporium to produce ligninolytic enzymes and co-extract polyphenols


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The effect of different types of agitation (i) continuous agitation (C); (ii) continuous, discontinuous, continuous agitation (C/D/C); (iii) discontinuous, continuous, discontinuous agitation (D/C/D) and aeration (0.87, 1.25, 1.66 vvm) on ligninolytic enzyme production and polyphenolic compounds extraction by solid-state cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 was investigated. Higher production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) (1690.3 ± 87.6), lignin peroxidase (LiP) (387.9 ± 14.3) and laccase (898.9 ± 53.3 U gds−1) and liberation of total polyphenolics (ranging from 12.22 ± 1.1 to 30.12 ± 0.88 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram DW) was obtained after 195, 147, 219 and 204 h of fermentation, respectively, using 1.66 vvm as airflow and (C/D/C) agitation mode. Maximal enzyme production and total polyphenolic content were influenced by aeration, and higher values were obtained using 1.66 vvm as airflow rate, followed by 1.25 and 0.83 vvm, respectively. They were also influenced by agitation, and maximal values were obtained using C/D/C, followed by D/C/D and continuous agitation, respectively. The agitation modes influenced the production of ligninolytic enzymes and simultaneous extraction of polyphenols.