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Figure S1. Schematic of supercritical CO2 extrusion process used to produce whey protein crisps.

Figure S2. Pictures of whey protein crisps made by supercritical fluid extrusion SCFX process and commercial whey protein crisps produced by conventional extrusion.

Figure S3. Typical force–distance deformation curve of extruded protein crisps as a function of different amount of whey protein concentrate (WPC)-80 and prebiotic fibre.

Figure S4. Specific mechanical energy involved in whey protein crisps made by supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) process as a function of protein and prebiotic fibre concentrations.

Figure S5. Scanning electron micrographs of whey protein crisps made by supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX).

Figure S6. Specific mechanical energy SEM images of internal morphology of whey crisp made by supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) and commercial whey crisps: (a) SCFX made 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC) crisp without CO2 addition, (b) SCFX made 70% WPC crisp with 1% CO2 addition, (c) commercial whey protein crisps with 70% whey protein (Bodybuilding Provision Technology, Inc., Ocean city, NJ). Micrographs in the upper and lower rows represent low (c. 259) and high (c. 509) magnifications, respectively. The scale bar in the micrographs indicates the magnification.

Table S1. Effect of formulation compositions on physical characteristics of supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX)-processed whey protein crisps.

Table S2. Effect of the amount of starch on whey protein crisps produced by supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX).

Table S3. Amino acid content of dry blend mix and extruded protein crisps.

Table S4. Colour parameters of dry blend premix and supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX)-extruded whey protein crisps.

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