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Table S1.

Levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB; CFU g−1) in lupine sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici and P. pentosaceus (≤ 0.05).

Figure S1. pH and TTA (°N) after 48 h fermentation of SSF lupine sourdough made with different LAB (P ≤ 0.05) (Pa No. 1672 – with P. acidilactici fermented lupine No. 1672; Pa No. 1719 – with P. acidilactici fermented lupine No. 1719; Pa No. 1700 – with P. acidilactici fermented lupine No. 1700; Pp8 No. 1672 – with P. pentosaceus fermented lupine No. 1672; Pp8 No. 1719 – with P. pentosaceus fermented lupine No. 1719; Pp8 No. 1700 – with P. pentosaceus fermented lupine No. 1700; Ls No. 1672 –with L. sakei fermented lupine No. 1672; Ls No. 1719 – with L. sakei fermented lupine No. 1719; Ls No. 1700 – with L. sakei fermented lupine No. 1700).

Figure S2. LAB amylase and protease activity in SSF lupine sourdough made with different LAB (P ≤ 0.05) (L.s. – L. sakei; P.a. – P. acidilactici 7; P.p. – P. pentosaceus 8, U/g – enzyme activity units in g samples).

Figure S3. D(−)/L(+) lactic acid isomers formation in SSF lupine sourdough fermented with different LAB (P ≤ 0.05).

Figure S4. Elastic modulus (G′, (Pa × 104), viscous modulus (G′′, (Pa × 104) and extensibility of doughs made with fermented lupine products [Pa no. 1672 – dough samples with Pediococcus acidilactici-fermented lupine no. 1672; Pa no. 1719 – dough samples with P. acidilactici-fermented lupine No. 1719; Pa no. 1700 – dough samples with P. acidilactici-fermented lupine no. 1700; Pp8 no. 1672 – dough samples with P. pentosaceus-fermented lupine no. 1672; Pp8 no. 1719 – dough samples with P. pentosaceus-fermented lupine no. 1719; Pp8 no. 1700 – dough samples with P. pentosaceus-fermented lupine no. 1700; Ls no. 1672 – dough samples with Lactobacillus sakei-fermented lupine no. 1672; Ls no. 1719 – dough samples with L. sakei-fermented lupine no. 1719; Ls no .1700 – dough samples with L. sakei-fermented lupine no. 1700; values expressed as mean (n = 6; P ≤ 0.05)].

Figure S5. Moisture content (%), porosity (%), specific volume (mL g−1) and extensibility (mm) of bread samples made with fermented lupine products [Pa No. 1672 – bread samples with P. acidilactici fermented lupine No. 1672; Pa No. 1719 – bread samples with P. acidilactici fermented lupine No. 1719; Pa No. 1700 – bread samples with P. acidilactici fermented lupine No. 1700; Pp8 No. 1672 – bread samples with P. pentosaceus fermented lupine No. 1672; Pp8 No. 1719 – bread samples with P. pentosaceus fermented lupine No. 1719; Pp8 No. 1700 – bread samples with P. pentosaceus fermented lupine No. 1700; Ls No. 1672 – bread samples with L. sakei fermented lupine No. 1672; Ls No. 1719 – bread samples with L. sakei fermented lupine No. 1719; Ls No. 1700 – bread samples with L. sakei fermented lupine No. 1700; Values expressed as mean (n = 6) (P ≤ 0.05)].

Figure S6. Digital images of wheat–lupine and control bread samples [Pa No. 1672 – bread samples with P. acidilactici fermented lupine No. 1672; Pa No. 1719 – bread samples with P. acidilactici fermented lupine No. 1719; Pa No. 1700 – bread samples with P. acidilactici fermented lupine No. 1700; Pp8 No. 1672 – bread samples with P. pentosaceus fermented lupine No. 1672; Pp8 No. 1719 – bread samples with P. pentosaceus fermented lupine No. 1719; Pp8 No. 1700 – bread samples with P. pentosaceus fermented lupine No. 1700; Ls No. 1672 – bread samples with L. sakei fermented lupine No. 1672; Ls No. 1719 – bread samples with L. sakei fermented lupine No. 1719; Ls No. 1700 – bread samples with L. sakei fermented lupine No. 1700 (P ≤ 0.05)].

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