In vitro intestinal absorption of amino acid mixtures extracted from codfish (Gadus morhua L.) salting wastewater

Authors

  • Vincenza Ferraro,

    1. CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal
    2. WeDoTech – Companhia de Ideias e Tecnologias, Lda./CiDEB, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal
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  • Ruben Ferreira Jorge,

    1. WeDoTech – Companhia de Ideias e Tecnologias, Lda./CiDEB, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal
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  • Isabel B. Cruz,

    1. CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal
    2. WeDoTech – Companhia de Ideias e Tecnologias, Lda./CiDEB, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal
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  • Filipa Antunes,

    1. INEB-Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, NEWTherapiesGroup, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
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  • Bruno Sarmento,

    1. INEB-Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, NEWTherapiesGroup, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
    2. CICS, HealthSciences Research Center, Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Norte, Rua Central de Gandra 1317, Gandra, Portugal
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  • Paula M. L. Castro,

    1. CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal
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  • Manuela E. Pintado

    Corresponding author
    1. CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal
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Summary

This study reports on the intestinal permeability of salt-containing mixtures of amino acids extracted from codfish salting wastewater. Permeability was evaluated in vitro using the Caco-2 cell line model; cell integrity during exposure to mixtures of amino acids was estimated by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). The effect of salt (NaCl) on the permeability and on the intestinal cell's integrity was also examined. Permeation rate (i.e. transport) was ≥95% for all amino acids except for creatine, for which it was 6%. Values for apparent permeability coefficients, Papp > 10−5 cm s−1, for mixture with isotonic concentration of NaCl suggest that amino acids are very likely to be absorbed in humans. Mixture with a hypertonic level of NaCl exerts a cytotoxic effect in intestinal cells resulting in a loss of epithelium integrity. Results show that isotonic mixture of amino acids extracted from codfish salting wastewater could be used in food, feed, cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations. These applications could contribute to the fish industry sustainability.

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