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Figure S1. Response surface plots for the reduction in microbial populations in the buckwheat sprouts treated with aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and fumaric acid at fixed ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation dose (2 kJ m2). (a) Total aerobic bacteria, (b) yeast and mould, and (c) coliform.

Figure S2. Response surface plots for the reduction in microbial populations in buckwheat sprouts treated with fumaric acid and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) at fixed aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) concentration (50 ppm). (a) Total aerobic bacteria, (b) yeast and mould, and (c) coliform.

Figure S3. Response surface plots for the change in sensory scores of the buckwheat sprouts treated with aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and fumaric acid at fixed ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation dose (2 kJ m2).(a) Appearance, (b) colour and (c) overall acceptability.

Figure S4. Response surface plots for the change in sensory scores of the buckwheat sprouts treated with fumaric acid and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) at fixed aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) concentration (50 ppm). (a) Appearance, (b) colour and (c) overall acceptability.

Figure S5. Superimposed contours for the reduction in microbial populations and change in sensory scores of the buckwheat sprouts at varying a aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) concentration, fumaric acid concentration and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation dose. (a) Aqueous ClO2 and fumaric acid, and (b) fumaric acid and UVC.

Table S1. Levels of independent variables used in the Box–Behnken design.

Table S2. Box–Behnken design with coded and uncoded values and experimental results for response variables of buckwheat sprouts.

Table S3. Regression coefficients of the second-order polynomials and significance of each model for dependent response variables in buckwheat sprouts treated with combinations of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2), fumaric acid and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) in actual level of variables.

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