Optimisation of analytical methods for the characterisation of oranges, clementines and citrus hybrids cultivated in Spain on the basis of their composition in ascorbic acid, citric acid and major sugars



Three HPLC methods were optimised for the determination of citric acid, succinic acid and ascorbic acid using a photodiode array detector and fructose, glucose and sucrose using a refractive index in twenty eight citrus juices. The analysis was completed in <16 min. Two different harvests were taken into account for this study. For the season 2011, ascorbic acid content was comprised between 19.4 and 59 mg vitamin C/100 mL; meanwhile for the season 2012, the content was slightly higher for most of the samples ranging from 33.5 to 85.3 mg vitamin C/100 mL. Moreover, the citric acid content in orange juices ranged between 9.7 and 15.1 g L−1, while for clementines the content was clearly lower (i.e. from 3.5 to 8.4 g L−1). However, clementines showed the highest sucrose content with values near to 6 g/100 mL. Finally, a cluster analysis was applied to establish a classification of the citrus species.