• Black cumin;
  • characterisation;
  • flax;
  • meals;
  • phenolic acids;
  • pomegranate


The article focuses on the extraction of ten phenolic acids from black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed meals. The extracts have been fractionated as free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolic compounds and quantitatively determined by HPLC–PDA. The analysed meals can be utilised for obtaining valuable phenolic acids. However, the distribution of phenolic compounds varies depending on the meal source. The insoluble-bound fraction has been the richest for the black cumin meal, both qualitatively and quantitatively, containing all ten analysed phenolics. In the pomegranate meal, the main phenolic has been gallic acid, accounting for nearly 48% in free form. The esterified form of the flaxseed meal has been abundant with ferulic (1025.44 ± 3.99 mg kg−1 dry weight), caffeic and p-coumaric acids. The total amount of phenolic acids would be underestimated if only free fractions would be taken into account, while neglecting esterified (for the pomegranate and flax meals) and insoluble-bound fractions (for the black cumin and pomegranate meals).