• Blue maize;
  • calcium hydroxide;
  • calcium lactate;
  • extrusion;
  • nixtamalisation;
  • rheological properties


The effects of different concentrations of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and calcium lactate [C6H10O6Ca] on the functional and physical properties of extruded (EF) and nixtamalised (NF) blue maize flours were evaluated. Calcium source and concentration showed no significant effects on the EF expansion index. The water absorption index (WAI) of EF decreased as the concentrations of both calcium sources increased, and NF with C6H10O6Ca had the lowest WAI. The thermal and pasting properties of NFs were higher than those of EF. NF with C6H10O6Ca showed the highest final viscosity (FinV), indicating less damage to the starch granules, and this was correlated with microscopic analysis. In contrast, the FinV of EFs was significantly affected by calcium source and concentration. Extrusion with 0.3% and nixtamalisation at 2.95% of C6H10O6Ca yielded high WAI value and the best rheological properties in maize flour, respectively. These results suggest the use of C6H10O6Ca in extrusion or nixtamalisation to produce blue maize flours for tortilla or snacks with antioxidants.