• Aerobic bacteria;
  • coliform bacteria;
  • high-pressure carbon dioxide;
  • raw bovine milk;
  • storage;
  • yeasts and moulds


This study assessed the inactivation of microorganisms naturally present in raw bovine milk by high-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) at 10–30 MPa and 20–50 °C for 20–70 min. The log reduction of microorganisms increased as raw bovine milk was exposed to higher pressures and temperatures and longer treatment times. The maximum reduction of aerobic bacteria (AB) was 4.96-log at 25 MPa and 50 °C for 70 min. At lower temperatures and treatment times, a complete inactivation of yeasts and moulds (Y&M) and coliform bacteria (CB) was obtained at 25 MPa. Changes in microorganisms naturally present in raw bovine milk during storage were also assessed. There were 1.83-log survival of AB, 0.65-log survival of Y&M and a complete inactivation of CB in raw bovine milk when subjected to HPCD at 25 MPa and 40 °C for 50 min. Moreover, the AB, Y&M and the CB in raw bovine milk exhibited insignificant alterations during storage at 4 °C for 15 days, indicating a potential capability of HPCD to extend the shelf life of milk.