• Extrusion;
  • fortification;
  • gelatinisation;
  • iron;
  • microstructure;
  • rice;
  • vitamin A


The viscous and thermal behaviour of five types of micronutrient-fortified reconstituted rice premixes extruded at pre-optimised extrusion conditions (36% moisture content, 150 rpm screw speed and 89 °C barrel temperature) have been investigated using rapid visco analyser (RVA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The highest peak viscosity (1279 cP), lowest gelatinised starch percentage (16.32) and highest enthalpy of gelatinisation (8.2 J g−1) were recorded in rice premix fortified with retinyl palmitate and micronised ferric pyrophosphate. The scanning electron microscopic analysis (SEM) also revealed that reconstituted rice premix fortified with iron (micronised ferric pyrophosphate) and retinyl palmitate was in closer resemblance to that of natural rice than any other reconstituted rice premix. The work demonstrated that vitamin A- and iron-fortified reconstituted rice with meso/micro structure and pasting behaviour close to that of natural rice can be produced using retinyl palmitate and micronised ferric pyrophosphate as vitamin A and iron source, respectively.