Cross-linking of bovine and caprine caseins by microbial transglutaminase and their use as microencapsulating agents for n-3 fatty acids
Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014
© 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science & Technology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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International Journal of Food Science & Technology
Volume 49, Issue 6, pages 1530–1543, June 2014
How to Cite
Mora-Gutierrez, A., Attaie, R., Kirven, J. M. and Farrell, H. M. (2014), Cross-linking of bovine and caprine caseins by microbial transglutaminase and their use as microencapsulating agents for n-3 fatty acids. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 49: 1530–1543. doi: 10.1111/ijfs.12450
- Issue published online: 16 MAY 2014
- Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Received: 19 AUG 2013
- Evans-Allen funding
- the United States Department of Agriculture/Cooperative State Research Service
- Algae oil;
- bovine casein;
- caprine casein;
- microbial transglutaminase;
- n-3 fatty acids;
- oxidative stability
Bovine and caprine caseins were cross-linked with microbial transglutaminase (mTG). The mTG-cross-linked bovine or caprine casein dispersion, mixed with 14.5% maltodextrin (DE = 40), was used to prepare emulsions with 10.5% algae oil. Oxidative stability of emulsions was evaluated by peroxide values (PVs) and anisidine values. Adding liposoluble rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid and δ-tocopherol lowered the formation of hydroperoxides and their subsequent decomposition products in emulsions. Emulsions stabilised with liposoluble rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid and δ-tocopherol were spray-dried at 180/95 °C. Algae oil microencapsulated with mTG-cross-linked bovine casein reduced PV by ≈ 34%, while the algae oil microencapsulated with mTG-cross-linked caprine casein with low levels of αs1-casein reduced PV by ≈ 42% at 4 weeks of storage at 30 °C. The investigation suggests that liposoluble rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid and δ-tocopherol effectively protected algae oil during the coating process with mTG-cross-linked bovine and caprine caseins. The above results clearly indicated that the choice of milk caseins (bovine vs. caprine) cross-linked with mTG impacts the oxidative stability of spray-dried algae oil emulsions (microcapsules) enriched with n-3 fatty acids.