• Butter adulteration;
  • coconut oil;
  • food quality;
  • palm oil;
  • synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy


The potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of butter adulteration with palm and coconut oils was investigated. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were collected in the range of 240–700 nm with wavelength intervals (∆λ) of 10, 30, 60 and 80 nm. The applied technique was used to detect the addition of palm and coconut oils to butter, and the lowest limit of detection for adulteration (LOD – 5.5%) was observed after applying the wavelength interval of 60 nm. The multiple linear regression (MLR) models were used to calculate the level of adulteration with the lowest root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square error of validation (RMSEV) of 3.8 and 3.9%, respectively, for the measurements acquired at the wavelength interval of 60 nm.