Antioxidant and anticancer capacity of saponin-enriched Carica papaya leaf extracts

Authors

  • Quan V. Vuong,

    1. Pancreatic Cancer Research, Nutrition Food & Health Research Group, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
    2. School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
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  • Sathira Hirun,

    1. Pancreatic Cancer Research, Nutrition Food & Health Research Group, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
    2. School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
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  • Tiffany L.K. Chuen,

    1. Pancreatic Cancer Research, Nutrition Food & Health Research Group, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
    2. School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
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  • Chloe D. Goldsmith,

    1. Pancreatic Cancer Research, Nutrition Food & Health Research Group, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
    2. School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
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  • Shane Murchie,

    1. School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
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  • Michael C. Bowyer,

    1. Pancreatic Cancer Research, Nutrition Food & Health Research Group, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
    2. School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
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  • Phoebe A. Phillips,

    1. Pancreatic Cancer Translational Research Group, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, Prince of Wales Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, The University of New South Wales, High Street, Kensington, NSW, Australia
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  • Christopher J. Scarlett

    Corresponding author
    1. Pancreatic Cancer Research, Nutrition Food & Health Research Group, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
    2. School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, 10 Chittaway Road, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
    3. Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia
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Summary

The papaya (Carica papaya) leaf (PL) contains high levels of saponins and polyphenolic compounds, and historically, it has been used as a folk medicine for numerous ailments, including cancer. PL is traditionally prepared by hot water extraction; however, optimised extraction conditions have not been assessed. This study optimised conditions for the extraction of saponins from PL and assessed their antioxidant capacity and antipancreatic cancer activity. Optimisation was achieved using response surface methodology. Saponins and total phenolic compounds were assessed for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, ion-reducing capacity, and antipancreatic cancer activity. Optimal aqueous extraction conditions were 85 °C, 25 min. and a water-to-leaf ratio of 20:1 mL g−1. Ethanol extracts demonstrated higher antioxidant, free radical scavenging and ion-reducing capacity, as well as antipancreatic cancer activity. This study revealed that the PL contains numerous bioactive compounds, with significant anticancer activity warranting further studies on the isolation and characterisation of individual bioactive compounds from the PL.

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