The authors would like to thank colleagues, the three reviewers and editor for the insightful suggestions that have helped develop this paper. This article is the outcome of a truly collaborative effort and all three authors contributed equally. The support of the Third Sector Research Centre funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, Cabinet Office and Barrow Cadbury Trust is gratefully acknowledged.
Social Enterprises as Hybrid Organizations: A Review and Research Agenda†
Article first published online: 3 JAN 2014
© 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Management Reviews published by the British Academy of Management and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
International Journal of Management Reviews
Volume 16, Issue 4, pages 417–436, October 2014
How to Cite
Doherty, B., Haugh, H. and Lyon, F. (2014), Social Enterprises as Hybrid Organizations: A Review and Research Agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16: 417–436. doi: 10.1111/ijmr.12028
A free Teaching and Learning Guide to accompany this article is available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1468-2370/homepage/teaching___learning_guides.htm
- Issue published online: 1 OCT 2014
- Article first published online: 3 JAN 2014
- Economic and Social Research Council
- Cabinet Office
- Barrow Cadbury Trust
The impacts of the global economic crisis of 2008, the intractable problems of persistent poverty and environmental change have focused attention on organizations that combine enterprise with an embedded social purpose. Scholarly interest in social enterprise (SE) has progressed beyond the early focus on definitions and context to investigate their management and performance. From a review of the SE literature, the authors identify hybridity, the pursuit of the dual mission of financial sustainability and social purpose, as the defining characteristic of SEs. They assess the impact of hybridity on the management of the SE mission, financial resource acquisition and human resource mobilization, and present a framework for understanding the tensions and trade-offs resulting from hybridity. By examining the influence of dual mission and conflicting institutional logics on SE management the authors suggest future research directions for theory development for SE and hybrid organizations more generally.