The objective of this study was to identify patients' quality of life (QOL) and health-care needs before undergoing total joint replacement surgery. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive survey approach. Data were collected in 2007. The results for role limitations because of physical functioning were the lowest. Health-care needs for exercise guidance were the highest. Male participants experienced superior QOL for the physical components (t = 2.379, P < .05). Participants who were single (F = 3.804; F = 4.539) and employed full time (F = 4.961; F = 3.994) had superior QOL for both the physical and mental components (P < .05). The predictive factors for physical components of QOL included occupational status, the previous total joint replacement and other health problems. The predictive factor for the mental components of QOL was marital status. Because role performance is limited by physical functioning, the participants experienced a poor QOL for the physical components. The participants had substantial health-care needs before surgery, particularly for rehabilitation exercise guidance and pain management.