Get access

Validation of the Portuguese version of the Stanford Presenteeism Scale in nurses


  • Carlos António Laranjeira RN PhD (Nursing Sciences)

    Adjunct Professor, Corresponding author
    1. Department of Nursing, Higher School of Health Sciences, Jean Piaget College, Viseu, Portugal
    Search for more papers by this author


The SPS-6 is a tool that is widely used to test the characteristic of presenteeism, which is the ability to concentrate and work despite health problems. This concept refers to the phenomenon of people—despite complaining and being ill—going to work instead of resting and taking sick leave.

The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the SPS-6.

Internal consistency was examined by Cronbach's α. The Perceived Stress Scale was selected to determine the external validity of the SPS-6. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate construct validity.

The reliability analysis of all 126 registered nurses entered in the study showed satisfactory results (Cronbach's α = 0.83). External validity was evidenced by the significant negative correlation between the SPS-6 and the perceived stress scores. The factor analysis resulted in a two-component solution that conjointly accounted for 52.4% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis showed an adequate model fit.

The Portuguese version of the SPS-6 displays the appropriate structure to measure the active employee's engagement at work.