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Antecedents to the integration process for recovery in older patients and spouses after a cardiovascular procedure


  • Diane L Carroll PhD RN

    Yvonne L Munn Nurse Researcher, Corresponding author
    1. Institute for Patient Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    • Correspondence: Diane L Carroll, Institute for Patient Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Professional Office Building 426, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Email:

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Social isolation, psychological state and knowledge needs are important antecedents to the process of integration for recovery from cardiovascular (CV) procedures. The purpose of this study is to measure these antecedents at 6 and 12 weeks after CV procedures in patients (greater 65 years) and their spouses. This descriptive study enrolled 318 subjects; 87 patients/73 spouses responded. There was higher spousal anxiety at 6 weeks (4.64 ± 4.2) compared with 12 weeks (3.65 ± 3.3, t = −2.17, P < 0.032). Patients rated 10 and 7 self-care knowledge needs at 6 and 12 weeks as ‘very important’ with significant reductions in importance for 4 needs by 12 weeks. Spouses rated 14 and 10 knowledge needs as ‘very important’ at 6 and 12 weeks. There were three spouse care knowledge needs that were not met at 6 weeks. Data identified higher anxiety levels in spouses, and spouse needs that were unmet at 6 weeks after CV procedures.