The aim of this study is to investigate the level of burnout of clinical nurses and to examine the influence of personal and environmental factors on nurse burnout. A total of 717 full-time nurses from six hospitals in Tianjin, China, completed five questionnaires: a demographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and the Nurse Job Stressor Scale. The participants had moderate levels of emotional exhaustion (mean score 23.95 ± 11.11) and depersonalization (mean score 7.90 ± 6.58) and a high level of reduced personal accomplishment (mean score 27.51 ± 10.96). Both personal and environmental factors were correlated with nurse burnout; however, personal factors played bigger roles in predicting personal accomplishment, whereas environmental factors played bigger roles in predicting emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In order to reduce nurse job burnout effectively, administrators should pay more attention to the improvement of nurses' self-efficacy and professional nursing practice environment and the reduction of stressors.