• 1
    Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002; 324:7186.
  • 2
    Psaty BM, Lumley T, Furberg CD et al. Health outcomes associated with various antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a network meta-analysis. JAMA 2003; 289:25342544.
  • 3
    Pearson TA. Primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease: trials of lipid lowering with statins. Am J Cardiol 1998; 82:28S30S.
  • 4
    Plehn JF, Davis BR, Sacks FM et al. Reduction of stroke incidence after myocardial infarction with pravastatin: the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) study. The Care Investigators. Circulation 1999; 99:216223.
  • 5
    White HD, Simes RJ, Anderson NE et al. Pravastatin therapy and the risk of stroke. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:317326.
  • 6
    Sever PS, Dahlof B, Poulter NR et al. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial – Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361:11491158.
  • 7
    Kushiro T, Mizuno K, Nakaya N et al. Pravastatin for cardiovascular event primary prevention in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension in the Management of Elevated Cholesterol in the Primary Prevention Group of Adult Japanese (MEGA) Study. Hypertension 2009; 53:135141.
  • 8
    Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Callahan A 3rd et al. High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:549559.
  • 9
    Manktelow BN, Potter JF. Interventions in the management of serum lipids for preventing stroke recurrence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; (3):CD002091.
  • 10
    Henyan NN, Riche DM, East HE, Gann PN. Impact of statins on risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41:19371945.
  • 11
    Amarenco P, Labreuche J. Lipid management in the prevention of stroke: review and updated meta-analysis of statins for stroke prevention. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8:453463.
  • 12
    Paciaroni M, Bogousslavsky J. Statins and stroke prevention. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2009; 7:12311243.
  • 13
    Sadowitz B, Maier KG, Gahtan V. Basic science review: statin therapy – part I: the pleiotropic effects of statins in cardiovascular disease. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2010; 44:241251.
  • 14
    Willey JZ, Elkind MS. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors in the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Arch Neurol 2010; 67:10621067.
  • 15
    Zhou Q, Liao JK. Pleiotropic effects of statins. – Basic research and clinical perspectives. Circ J 2010; 74:818826.
  • 16
    Ridker PM, Rifai N, Pfeffer MA, Sacks F, Braunwald E. Long-term effects of pravastatin on plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. The Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) Investigators. Circulation 1999; 100:230235.
  • 17
    Albert MA, Danielson E, Rifai N, Ridker PM. Effect of statin therapy on C-reactive protein levels: the pravastatin inflammation/CRP evaluation (PRINCE): a randomized trial and cohort study. JAMA 2001; 286:6470.
  • 18
    Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA et al. Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:21952207.
  • 19
    Crouse JR 3rd, Raichlen JS, Riley WA et al. Effect of rosuvastatin on progression of carotid intima-media thickness in low-risk individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis: the METEOR Trial. JAMA 2007; 297:13441353.
  • 20
    Bedi US, Singh M, Singh PP et al. Effects of statins on progression of carotid atherosclerosis as measured by carotid intimal – medial thickness: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2010; 15:268273.
  • 21
    Liu M, Wang F, Wang Y, Jin R. Atorvastatin improves endothelial function and cardiac performance in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: the role of inflammation. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2009; 23:369376.
  • 22
    Reriani MK, Dunlay SM, Gupta B et al. Effects of statins on coronary and peripheral endothelial function in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2011; 18:704716.
  • 23
    Briel M, Studer M, Glass TR, Bucher HC. Effects of statins on stroke prevention in patients with and without coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med 2004; 117:596606.
  • 24
    Adams HP Jr, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ et al. Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Stroke 1993; 24:3541.
  • 25
    Special report from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Classification of cerebrovascular diseases III. Stroke 1990; 21:637676.
  • 26
    Yokota C, Minematsu K, Hasegawa Y, Yamaguchi T. Long-term prognosis, by stroke subtypes, after a first-ever stroke: a hospital-based study over a 20-year period. Cerebrovasc Dis 2004; 18:111116.
  • 27
    Peto R, Pike MC, Armitage P et al. Design and analysis of randomized clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. I. Introduction and design. Br J Cancer 1976; 34:585612.
  • 28
    Uchiyama S, Nakaya N, Mizuno K et al. Risk factors for stroke and lipid-lowering effect of pravastatin on the risk of stroke in Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia: analysis of data from the MEGA Study, a large randomized controlled trial. J Neurol Sci 2009; 284:7276.
  • 29
    Amarenco P, Benavente O, Goldstein LB et al. Results of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial by stroke subtypes. Stroke 2009; 40:14051409.
  • 30
    Turin TC, Kita Y, Rumana N et al. Ischemic stroke subtypes in a Japanese population: Takashima Stroke Registry, 1988–2004. Stroke 2010; 41:18711876.
  • 31
    Vaughan CJ. Prevention of stroke and dementia with statins: effects beyond lipid lowering. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91:23B29.