• 1
    Johnston SC, Mendis S, Mathers CD. Global variation in stroke burden and mortality: estimates from monitoring, surveillance, and modelling. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8:345354.
  • 2
    Rothwell PM. The high cost of not funding stroke research: a comparison with heart disease and cancer. Lancet 2001; 357:16121616.
  • 3
    Mackay J, Mensah GA. The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004.
  • 4
    Caro JJ, Huybrechts KF, Duchesne I. Management patterns and costs of acute ischemic stroke: an international study. Stroke 2000; 31:582590.
  • 5
    Strong K, Mathers C, Bonita R. Preventing stroke: saving lives around the world. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6:182187.
  • 6
    Sudlow CLM, Warlow CP. Comparing stroke incidence worldwide: what makes studies comparable? Stroke 1996; 27:550558.
  • 7
    Malmgren R, Warlow C, Bamford J, Sandercock P. Geographical and secular trends in stroke incidence. Lancet 1987; 2:11961200.
  • 8
    Feigin V, Hoorn SV. Editorial: how to study stroke incidence. Lancet 2004; 363:1920.
  • 9
    Bonita R, Broad JB, Beaglehole R. Changes in stroke incidence and case-fatality in Auckland, New Zealand, 1981–91. Lancet 1993; 342:14701473.
  • 10
    Feigin V, Carter K, Hackett M et al. Ethnic disparities in incidence of stroke subtypes: Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study, 2002–2003. Lancet Neurol 2006; 5:130139.
  • 11
    Anderson CS, Carter KN, Hackett ML et al. Trends in stroke incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, during 1981 to 2003. Stroke 2005; 36:20872093.
  • 12
    Minelli C, Fen LF, Minelli DP. Stroke incidence, prognosis, 30-day, and 1-year case fatality rates in Matao, Brazil: a population-based prospective study. Stroke 2007; 38:29062911.
  • 13
    Dalal PM, Malik S, Bhattacharjee M et al. Population-based stroke survey in Mumbai, India: incidence and 28-day case fatality. Neuroepidemiology 2008; 31:254261.
  • 14
    Feigin VL, Lawes CM, Bennett DA, Barker-Collo SL, Parag V. Worldwide stroke incidence and early case fatality reported in 56 population-based studies: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8:355369.
  • 15
    Rothwell PM, Coull AJ, Giles MF et al. Change in stroke incidence, mortality, case-fatality, severity, and risk factors in Oxfordshire, UK from 1981 to 2004 (Oxford Vascular Study). Lancet 2004; 363:19251933.
  • 16
    Kleindorfer D, Broderick J, Khoury J et al. The unchanging incidence and case-fatality of stroke in the 1990s: a population-based study. Stroke 2006; 37:24732478.
  • 17
    Feigin VL, Wiebers DO, Nikitin YP et al. Epidemiology of stroke in different regions of Siberia, Russia, 1987–1988: population-based study in Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tynda and Anadyr. Eur J Neurol 1996; 3:1622.
  • 18
    Islam MS, Anderson CS, Hankey GJ et al. Trends in incidence and outcome of stroke in Perth, Western Australia during 1989 to 2001: the Perth Community stroke study. Stroke 2008; 39:776782.
  • 19
    Thrift AG, Dewey HM, Macdonell RA, McNeil JJ, Donnan GA. Stroke incidence on the east coast of Australia: the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Stroke 2000; 31:20872092.
  • 20
    Lavados PM, Sacks C, Prina L et al. Incidence, 30-day case-fatality rate, and prognosis of stroke in Iquique, Chile: a 2-year community-based prospective study (PISCIS project). Lancet 2005; 365:22062215.
  • 21
    Giles MF, Rothwell PM. Substantial underestimation of the need for outpatient services for TIA and minor stroke. Age Ageing 2007; 36:676680.
  • 22
    Johnston SC, Rothwell PM, Nguyen-Huynh MN et al. Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet [Multicenter Study,Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2007; 369:283292.
  • 23
    Rothwell PM, Giles MF, Flossmann E et al. A simple score (ABCD) to identify individuals at high early risk of stroke after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2005; 366:2936.
  • 24
    Bennett S. Socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease and stroke mortality among Australian men, 1979–1993. Int J Epidemiol 1996; 25:266275.
  • 25
    Tobias M, Howden-Chapman P. Social inequalities in health, New Zealand 1999: a summary. 2000. Available at
  • 26
    Bravata DM, Wells CK, Gulanski B et al. Racial disparities in stroke risk factors: the impact of socioeconomic status. Stroke 2005; 36:15071511.
  • 27
    Stansbury JP, Jia H, Williams LS, Vogel WB, Duncan PW. Ethnic disparities in stroke: epidemiology, acute care, and postacute outcomes. Stroke 2005; 36:374386.
  • 28
    Harris R, Tobias M, Jeffreys M, Waldegrave K, Karlsen S, Nazroo J. Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on Maori health and inequalities in New Zealand: cross-sectional study. Lancet 2006; 367:20052009.
  • 29
    Heuschmann PU, Grieve AP, Toschke AM, Rudd AG, Wolfe CD. Ethnic group disparities in 10-year trends in stroke incidence and vascular risk factors: the South London Stroke Register (SLSR). Stroke 2008; 39:22042210.
  • 30
    Bonita R, Broad JB, Beaglehole R. Ethnic variations in stroke incidence and case fatality: the Auckland Stroke study. Stroke 1997; 28:758761.
  • 31
    Carter K, Anderson C, Hacket M et al. Trends in ethnic disparities in stroke incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, during 1981 to 2003. Stroke 2006; 37:5662.
  • 32
    Dyall L, Feigin V, Brown P, Roberts M. Stroke: a picture of health disparities in New Zealand. Soc Policy J N Z 2008; 33:178191.
  • 33
    Tobias M, Cheung J, Carter K et al. Stroke surveillance: population-based estimates and projections for New Zealand. Aust N Z J Public Health 2007; 31:520525.
  • 34
    Feigin VL, McNaughton H, Dyall L, Feigin VL, McNaughton H, Dyall L. Burden of stroke in Maori and Pacific peoples of New Zealand. Int J Stroke [Review]. 2007; 2:208210.
  • 35
    Fustinoni O, Biller J. Ethnicity and stroke: beware of the fallacies.[see comment]. Stroke 2000; 31:10131015.
  • 36
    Sacco RL, Boden-Albala B, Gan R et al. Stroke incidence among white, black, and Hispanic residents of an urban community: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 147:259268.
  • 37
    Stewart JA, Dundas R, Howard RS, Rudd AG, Wolfe CD. Ethnic differences in incidence of stroke: prospective study with stroke register. BMJ 1999; 318:967971.
  • 38
    van Rossum CT, van de Mheen H, Breteler MM, Grobbee DE, Mackenbach JP. Socioeconomic differences in stroke among Dutch elderly women: the Rotterdam Study. Stroke 1999; 30:357362.
  • 39
    Aho K, Harmsen P, Hatano S, Marquardsen J, Smirnov VE, Strasser T. Cerebrovascular disease in the community: results of a WHO collaborative study. Bull World Health Organ 1980; 58:113130.
  • 40
  • 41
    Thorvaldsen P, Asplund K, Kuulasmaa K, Rajakangas AM, Schroll M. Stroke incidence, case fatality, and mortality in the WHO MONICA project. World Health Organization monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease. Stroke 1995; 26:361367.
  • 42
    Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, Burn J, Warlow C. A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project – 1981–86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1990; 53:1622.
  • 43
    Paci M, Nannetti L, D'Ippolito P, Lombardi B. Outcomes from ischemic stroke subtypes classified by the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project: a systematic review. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med [Review]. 2011; 47:1923.
  • 44
    Goldstein LB, Jones MR, Matchar DB et al. Improving the reliability of stroke subgroup classification using the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. Stroke 2001; 32:10911098.
  • 45
    Adams HP, Jr, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ et al. Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Stroke 1993; 24:3541.
  • 46
    Goldstein LB, Bertels C, Davis JN. Interrater reliability of the NIH stroke scale. Arch Neurol 1989; 46:660662.
  • 47
    Pallicino P, Snyder W, Granger C. The NIH stroke scale and the FIM in stroke rehabilitation. Stroke 1992; 23:919.
  • 48
    Spilker J, Kongable G, Barch C et al. Using the NIH Stroke Scale to assess stroke patients. The NINDS rt-PA Stroke Study Group. J Neurosci Nurs 1997; 29:384392.
  • 49
    Sulter G, Steen C, De KJ. Use of the Barthel index and modified Rankin scale in acute stroke trials. Stroke 1999; 30:15381541.
  • 50
    Uyttenboogaart M, Stewart RE, Vroomen PC, De KJ, Luijckx GJ. Optimizing cutoff scores for the Barthel index and the modified Rankin scale for defining outcome in acute stroke trials. Stroke 2005; 36:19841987.
  • 51
    Wilson JT, Hareendran A, Grant M et al. Improving the assessment of outcomes in stroke: use of a structured interview to assign grades on the modified Rankin Scale. Stroke 2002; 33:22432246.
  • 52
    Teasdale G, Jennett B. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet 1974; 2:8184.
  • 53
    Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983; 67:361370.
  • 54
    Goldberg P. Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor Berks, NFER-Nelson, 1978.
  • 55
    Bjelland I, Dahl AA, Haug TT, Neckelmann D. The validity of the hospital anxiety and depression scale. An updated literature review. J Psychosom Res 2002; 52:6977.
  • 56
    Johnston M, Pollard B, Hennessey P. Construct validation of the hospital anxiety and depression scale with clinical populations. J Psychosom Res 2000; 48:579584.
  • 57
    Sagen U, Vik TG, Moum T, MÃrland T, Finset A, Dammen T. Screening for anxiety and depression after stroke: comparison of the hospital anxiety and depression scale and the montgomery and Ãsberg depression rating scale. J Psychosom Research 2009; 67:325332.
  • 58
    Gualtieri CT, Johnson LG. Reliability and validity of a computerized neurocognitive test battery, CNS Vital Signs. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2006; 21:623643.
  • 59
    Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bedirian V et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc [Evaluation Studies Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]. 2005; 53:695699.
  • 60
    Grigsby J, Kaye K. Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale: Manual. Denver Colorado, 1996.
  • 61
    Kuipers P, Kendall M, Fleming J, Tate R. Comparison of the Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale (SPRS) with the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ): psychometric properties. Brain Inj 2004; 18:161177.
  • 62
    Roger D, Jarvis G, Najarian B. Detachment and coping: the construction and validation of a new scale for measuring coping strategies. Pers Individ Dif 1993; 15:619626.
  • 63
    Sarason IG, Sarason BR, Shearin EN, Pierce GR. A brief measure of social support: practical and theoretical implications. J Soc Pers Relat 1987; 4:497510.
  • 64
    Barker-Collo S, Feigin VL, Dudley M. Post stroke fatigue – where is the evidence to guide practice? N Z Med J 2007; 120:U2780.
  • 65
    Kleinman L, Zodet MW, Hakim Z et al. Psychometric evaluation of the fatigue severity scale for use in chronic hepatitis C. Qual Life Res 2000; 9:499508.
  • 66
    Schwartz AL, Meek PM, Nail LM et al. Measurement of fatigue: determining minimally important clinical differences. J Clin Epidemiol 2002; 55:239244.
  • 67
    Lee KA, Hicks G, Nino-Murcia G. Validity and reliability of a scale to assess fatigue. Psychiatry Res 1991; 36:291298.
  • 68
    Broadbent E, Petrie KJ, Main J, Weinman J. The brief illness perception questionnaire. J Psychosom Res 2006; 60:631637.
  • 69
    Heinemann AW, Sokol K, Garvin L, Bode RK. Measuring unmet needs and services among persons with traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83:10521059.
  • 70
    Bakas T, Champion V. Development and psychometric testing of the Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale. Nurs Res 1999; 48:250259.
  • 71
    Feigin VL, Barker-Collo S, McNaughton H, Brown P, Kerse N. Long-term neuropsychological and functional outcomes in stroke survivors: current evidence and perspectives for new research. Int J Stroke. 2008; 3:3340.
  • 72
    Barker-Collo S, Feigin VL, Parag V, Lawes CMM, Senior H. Auckland Stroke Outcomes Study. Part 2: cognition and functional outcomes 5 years poststroke. Neurology 2010; 75:16081616.
  • 73
    Bakas T, Williams LS, Chadwick L, Jessup SL. Task difficulty, depression, and life changes in family caregivers of stroke survivors. Stroke 2001; 32:15.
  • 74
    Krishnamurthi R, Witt E, Barker-Collo S et al. Reducing Recurrent Stroke: Methodology of the Motivational Interviewing in Stroke (MIST) randomised clinical trial. Int J Stroke 2013; in press.
  • 75
    Rutherford SJ, Theadom A, Jones A et al. Capturing the stories behind the numbers: the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study (ARCOS IV), a qualitative study. Int J Stroke 2013; in press.