Adaptation and clonal selection models of castration-resistant prostate cancer: Current perspective

Authors

  • Muhammed Ahmed,

    1. Department of Urology and Helen-Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    2. Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
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  • Long-Cheng Li

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Urology and Helen-Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
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Correspondence: Long-Cheng Li M.D., Department of Urology and Helen-Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Email: lilc@urology.ucsf.edu

Abstract

Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in men worldwide. Management of the disease has remained a great challenge and even more so is the aggressive advanced stage with castration-resistant behavior. The mechanisms and timing of development of castration-resistant prostate cancer are unclear and remain debatable. Progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer is undoubtedly multifactorial, with a number of molecular-genetic aberrations implicated. However, a key question that remains unanswered is: when in the evolution of prostate cancer do the changes that confer castration resistance occur? Earlier attempts to address this question led to two proposed models: the “adaptation” and the “clonal selection” models. Although the prevailing hypothesis is the adaptation model, there is recent evidence in favor of the clonal selection model. Clarification of the model development of castration-resistant prostate cancer might significantly alter our diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, and potentially lead to improved outcome of management of this daunting condition. Here we review existing knowledge and current research findings addressing the timing of events in the course of prostate cancer progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer.

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