Previously we identified anterior localization of hunchback (Aphb) mRNA in oocytes and early embryos of the parthenogenetic and viviparous pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, suggesting that the breaking of anterior asymmetry in the oocytes leads to the formation of the anterior axis in embryos. In order to study posterior development in the asexual pea aphid, we cloned and analysed the developmental expression of caudal (Apcad), a posterior gene highly conserved in many animal phyla. We found that transcripts of Apcad were not detected in germaria, oocytes and embryos prior to the formation of the blastoderm in the asexual (viviparous) pea aphid. This unusual expression pattern differs from that of the existing insect models, including long- and short-germ insects, where maternal cad mRNA is passed to the early embryos and forms a posterior–anterior gradient. The first detectable Apcad expression occurred in the newly formed primordial germ cells and their adjacent blastodermal cells during late blastulation. From gastrulation onward, and as in other insects, Apcad mRNA is restricted to the posteriormost region of the germ band. Similarly, in the sexual (oviparous) oocytes we were able to identify anterior localization of Aphb mRNA but posterior localization of Apcad was not detected. This suggests that cad-driven posterior development is not conserved during early embryogenesis in asexual and sexual pea aphids.