The investigation of cDNA libraries has been an important tool for the identification of new genes in nonmodel species such as the fruit flies from the Anastrepha fraterculus group. In the present study, we constructed a cDNA library from the female reproductive tissues of Anastrepha obliqua aiming to identify genes with high evolutionary rates. We sequenced 2304 clones obtained from the female reproductive tissues of A. obliqua flies. The expressed sequence tags generated a total of 816 unigenes which were classified into different protein classes. Among these, we identified chorionic and vitelline protein genes as being among the most highly expressed. We used unigene sequences to amplify a set of chorionic and vitelline genes, involved in the formation of the eggshell, in species of the fraterculus group. Four chorionic genes and two vitelline genes showed evidence of positive selection along the Anastrepha and/or Tephritidae lineage. The signal of selection detected for Vm26Aa was possibly generated by a gene duplication event. The rapid evolutionary rates indicate that these genes could serve as important markers in population and evolutionary studies, not only for species of this group, but possibly also for other Diptera.